Hello:

What is the correct terminology and technique if you want to modify the Vmax and Vmin of a sine wave so they are equal. I keep thinking level shifting but that is not it. I know some refer to Vmax as Vpp, but I am referring to the voltage above and below the ground baseline.

Vmax & Vmin are not used if referring to a sine wave with

**no **dc offset.

A moments thought shows that both the positive & negative peaks are "max",& the only "min" is the zero crossing.

The only time they are correct usage is when there is a dc offset of the signal as below:

(1)

**Vmin & Vmax:-**Amplifier devices & ADDs are normally dc coupled internally,so the input signal will have a dc offset .

If it is a positive offset,the sinewave positive half cycle will add to the dc voltage,& the negative half cycle will subtract from it.

The inverse will be the case for a negative offset.

The effect upon the dc voltage will thus be maximum at the sine wave peaks,so the

**dc **voltages resulting become Vmax & Vmin

(2)

**Vpp:-**Vpp is normally used in two situations:

(a)As a convenient way of measuring ac waveforms on Oscilloscopes.

Obviously,the positive & negative half cycles are not present at the same time.

(b)A device,such as an amplifier,or a ADD must be able to handle the whole dynamic range of the sine wave,from peak negative to peak positive without distortion,hence Vpp is a useful parameter,used in conjunction with Vmax & Vmin as in (1)