Author Topic: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!  (Read 3493 times)

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Offline grahamparks

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This incident happenned in 2019 but the Air Accident Investigation Branch has only just published its report.
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Whilst performing a demonstration flight, the remote pilot lost control of the 95 kg Alauda Airspeeder Mk II scale demonstrator. After the loss of control had been confirmed by the remote pilot, the safety ‘kill switch’ was operated but had no effect. The Unmanned Aircraft then climbed to approximately 8,000 ft, entering controlled airspace at a holding point for flights arriving at Gatwick Airport, before its battery depleted and it fell to the ground. It crashed in a field of crops approximately 40 m from occupied houses and 700 m outside of its designated operating area. There were no injuries.

The amazing thing is how bodgy the electronics were:
Quote
Initial examination of the circuit boards revealed some concerns regarding build quality and workmanship. The boards were populated with ‘hobbyist’ components with exposed wiring, large amounts of solder and lumps of adhesive. The kill switch used an electronics prototyping board with a number of jumper wires instead of a printed circuit. Failure of any of these wires would render the kill switch inoperative

Quote
The examination revealed a number of issues with the flight control system and both the airborne and ground-based kill switch assemblies. All the assemblies failed an evaluation against all IPC A-610 classes due to quality and workmanship issues. Examples included misaligned components, burnt insulation, the use of solder bridges, excessive flux residues and a power connector that appeared to be installed in the incorrect orientation when compared to the drawn orientation on the circuit board.

Quote
The aircraft was designed for high speed, high performance operations and the importance of the control systems functioning correctly was reflected in the risk assessment. The flight control circuit boards were mounted on Velcro with a foam lining, in an IP55 box. The circuit boards were not subject to any vibration, shock, RF or temperature testing and the in-house developed software was not developed to any level of assurance.

The construction of the aircraft used a large number of plastic tie-wraps to keep components in place. This included the ESCs, cabling and the connector plates from the control system ethernet cables to the ESCs (Figure 22). Failure of any of these connectors or cables would render the aircraft uncontrollable.

The kill switch relied on Normally Closed relay contacts, and there was no mechanism to find out if the kill switch radio channel was working until they pressed the button and nothing happened. The bare board hanging out of the laptop in the photo below is the safety-critical transmitter.

The main control software was designed to continue executing the last command it received if it lost contact, in this case continuing to climb into controlled airspace. There was no GPS or automatic return to base functionality. There was no data logging.

They were planning to make the thing carry a human in the next iteration.

Full report here, with more pics:
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/602bb22f8fa8f50388f9f000/Alauda_Airspeeder_Mk_II_UAS_reg_na_03-21.pdf
« Last Edit: February 22, 2021, 09:22:48 am by grahamparks »
 
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Offline Raj

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #1 on: February 22, 2021, 09:33:24 am »
This is why we can't have nice things...
hopefully no one lets the lawmakers take a look at this.
 
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Offline Ice-Tea

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #2 on: February 22, 2021, 09:40:56 am »
Classic "I know electronics because my Arduino makes a LED blink".

I'm sure we'll see a *lot* more stuff like this in the future.

A POC does not a product make...
 
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Offline Rerouter

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #3 on: February 22, 2021, 09:42:59 am »
I would actually flip it to what the minimum bar is moved to for this level of project, and I don't disagree with any of there points, invert all of what they said was wrong, and you get the passing bar for what they would like to see,

I personally would not want to ever fly a human on something I have built, but the question changes to, if all the concern points where addressed, e.g. proper tested kill switch, properly assembled electronics, firmly mounted in a weatherproof enclosure, would that meet the bar? again not for the human part, just for the can this be flown aspect,

I would eventually like to hook a panorama camera rig up to a drone with a long enough battery life, but my confidence that it will stay in the sky under all conditions has put me off attempting it.

 

Offline Kean

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #4 on: February 22, 2021, 09:44:30 am »
A POC does not a product make...

Management rarely understands the difference between a POC, a prototype, and a pilot production unit.
 
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Offline Kean

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #5 on: February 22, 2021, 09:48:32 am »
There was no GPS or automatic return to base functionality. There was no data logging.

I am appalled by the low build quality for something that needed to be airworthy, but I find these omissions even more incredible.
 
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Online beanflying

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #6 on: February 22, 2021, 10:03:33 am »
This incident happenned in 2019 but the Air Accident Investigation Branch has only just published its report.
Quote
Whilst performing a demonstration flight, the remote pilot lost control of the 95 kg Alauda Airspeeder Mk II scale demonstrator. After the loss of control had been confirmed by the remote pilot, the safety ‘kill switch’ was operated but had no effect. The Unmanned Aircraft then climbed to approximately 8,000 ft, entering controlled airspace at a holding point for flights arriving at Gatwick Airport, before its battery depleted and it fell to the ground. It crashed in a field of crops approximately 40 m from occupied houses and 700 m outside of its designated operating area. There were no injuries.


Made in Australia and NEVER APPROVED FOR FLIGHT by CASA in Australia!  >:( As I have had a bit to do with CASA over several decades and know one of their inspectors it never would get approval in that state! So take your title and shove it where the Sun doesn't shine this is NOTHING to be made light of!

This is a case of a marketing company with little to zero clue of flight systems that LIED to the UK Authorities who then didn't in turn do THEIR job on the airframes and inspect them.
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Offline Ian.M

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #7 on: February 22, 2021, 10:40:21 am »
Yeah, I saw that on 'The Register' a few days ago and considered linking it here.

Either the builder's never even heard of the NASA TECHNICAL STANDARD for SOLDERED ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS, NASA-STD-8739.3, let alone read it, or was deliberately and wilfully ignorant and negligent.

I'm not saying all of 8739.3 will be applicable to an experimental drone or light aircraft, but any deviations from it should be explicitly decided on and documented.

Also, if you are flying a high value prototype drone, or operating in an area with anything except a very low population density, why wouldn't you have a parachute fitted, that will deploy if the kill switch is operated during flight, or if the control link is lost for an extended period or at critical low battery?  It will probably reduce impact damage enough to save your aircraft, and will vastly reduce the risk of serious injury to bystanders. 
 

Offline tszaboo

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #8 on: February 22, 2021, 11:07:31 am »
I'm not saying all of 8739.3 will be applicable to an experimental drone or light aircraft, but any deviations from it should be explicitly decided on and documented.
Why would it be applicable to anything but electronics made for NASA?
The industry standard is IPC-610  Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies.

Others:
This is a proof of concept. It is unfortunate that the accident happened, but you shouldn't expect production quality boards and wiring for such. Obviously this was for a demonstration, the airframe seems to be in it's final shape, the electronics obviously not.
There is a seat on it, but it is unmanned.

But there is nothing new here. It is generic practice, that unfinished aircraft fly. Usually it's the job of test pilots, and it is a damn dangerous job.
If you regulate it, the only achievement is that you kill the hobby of drone building.
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Online beanflying

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #9 on: February 22, 2021, 11:18:03 am »
I'm not saying all of 8739.3 will be applicable to an experimental drone or light aircraft, but any deviations from it should be explicitly decided on and documented.
Why would it be applicable to anything but electronics made for NASA?
The industry standard is IPC-610  Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies.

Others:
This is a proof of concept. It is unfortunate that the accident happened, but you shouldn't expect production quality boards and wiring for such. Obviously this was for a demonstration, the airframe seems to be in it's final shape, the electronics obviously not.
There is a seat on it, but it is unmanned.

But there is nothing new here. It is generic practice, that unfinished aircraft fly. Usually it's the job of test pilots, and it is a damn dangerous job.
If you regulate it, the only achievement is that you kill the hobby of drone building.

In Oz there is NO way to fly this airframe 'legally'. There is a complete approvals process even for test flights. Those of us that play in this space take it very seriously

National Government body (including the RULES to be followed PRIOR to flight) https://www.casa.gov.au/drones

Peak Industry Body for Commercial UAV's https://aaus.org.au/

A bit of HISTORY of Oz UAV's https://barnardmicrosystems.com/UAV/milestones/atlantic_crossing_1.html I have flown with three of the guys pictured and named here, another good mate of mine of 35 years was their Chief Pilot at the time and another mate of mine built the Airframes before and after this flight for some time.
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Offline Saskia

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #10 on: February 22, 2021, 01:22:58 pm »
Well, in that case it seems quite obvious that the company has willfully broken the law in quite a few countries and instances. Where is the prosecutor and why has the company not been shut down ?

And why do I see parallels to the issue with the swiss guy who want to test his non certified eeg concoction on unsuspecting victims ? ...
 

Online Bicurico

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #11 on: February 22, 2021, 01:43:06 pm »
I know my opinion may/will be criticised, but I did read through a big chunk of the report and I don't think this project was nearly as bad as some comments on this forum may suggest.

The pilot did comply with all/most norms, as far as I can tell. When I saw the post starting this thread, i immediatly imagined a home-made UAV operated by an amateur pilot without any authorisation, which was definitely not the case.

The UAV has design flaws and a built-quality that is not on par with standards and recommendations. I understand that, but: if the bar is raised too high and too many norms have to be studied and implemented, it will basically eliminate any entrepreurship in this area.

Imagine I have some great ideas for an UAV. No matter how much I know of mechanics, aerodynamics, electronics and even if I would setup a small team, we would never be able to handle all the regulations the report is suggesting. But that would not void the fact that we may have a great application. And in my opinion, any prototype should be much less regulated than a commercial product.

If in a case like this, the authorities autorized a demonstration flight of a prototype and all generic flight regulations have been met, a clear airspace has been provided, then why shouldn't they be able to fly the prototype?

If this prototype is at a point that an investor is found and the prototype is to be transformed into a commercial product, then yes, by all means every regulatory aspect needs to be implemented and checked.

But please don't be too severe on prototypes, otherwise independent R&D will be made impossible.

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Online beanflying

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #12 on: February 22, 2021, 01:52:22 pm »
Complete  :bullshit: You CANNOT allow EVER completely unregulated uninspected air vehicles of this weight to fly period! There is no first world country I am aware of that would allow this and the only reason this go through is the Company LIED.

The CASA (Australian) regs for heavy UAV or Model inspection to 25kg are really really simple. When you get up in weight they are not and when you want to strap a human into it go to another whole level. I have helped with the paperwork for one of these and it was an afternoons work and a few hours at CASA.

If this bunch of tossers wanted an easier path to proof of concept then they should have opted for smaller rather than a dangerous PR stunt!
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Offline filssavi

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #13 on: February 22, 2021, 02:13:47 pm »
This is why we can't have nice things...
hopefully no one lets the lawmakers take a look at this.

I instead hope they take a long hard look at this...

If they flew the thing in an open field (with the owner permission) by themselves I would bet my left kidney that nobody  would have cared and no investigation would have been even started.

But no they flew the damn thing at an airshow with a 35.000 peoples in attendence, what do we need to wait, for one of these things to crash in the middle of a crowd injuring or even killing few people?

But please don't be too severe on prototypes, otherwise independent R&D will be made impossible.

You don't need to fly your shoddily built independent prototype at an air-show...
do it in the open with the bare minimum amount of people necessary until you have enough money to do the job properly


Unfortunately this is the other side of the coin of the Arduino movement, it introduced a lot of people to the electronics hobby, however it also gave rise of a generation of hubris filled "engineers" that really don't know any better.

Nothing is more indicative of this than the Normally closed security relay, there is no ammount of screaming abount management pressure to convince me that it was anything but designer incompetence, it is not a matter of cost (relay usually have both type of contacts, and regardless there is no price difference), it is not a matter of circuit complexity (there is not really too much difference); it is just sheer incompetence, arrogance, and willingness to throw stuff together
 
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Offline Syntax Error

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #14 on: February 22, 2021, 03:26:31 pm »
Classic "I know electronics because my Arduino makes a LED blink".

I'm sure we'll see a *lot* more stuff like this in the future.

A POC does not a product make...
Flight qualified Arduino Nano compatibles from ebay. NOT.

95 kilos is like having a truck battery falling out of the sky from 8000 feet. That's about 150mph on impact?
 

Offline tszaboo

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #15 on: February 22, 2021, 03:46:43 pm »
Well, in that case it seems quite obvious that the company has willfully broken the law in quite a few countries and instances. Where is the prosecutor and why has the company not been shut down ?

And why do I see parallels to the issue with the swiss guy who want to test his non certified eeg concoction on unsuspecting victims ? ...
Why? This happened in the UK, you cannot apply AUS law to UK.
In Oz there is NO way to fly this airframe 'legally'. There is a complete approvals process even for test flights. Those of us that play in this space take it very seriously
Maybe. Maybe the law is different in the UK. This is from the report:

Quote
The Civil Aviation Authority’s Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Unit had assessed the
operator’s application and, after clarification and amendment of some aspects, issued an
exemption to the Air Navigation Order to allow flights in accordance with the operator’s
Operating Safety Case.

So they had contacted the authorities, and they had rights for the test flight. They even went to a local airfield to carry out the test and they didn't just take off in the middle of a town center.
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Offline grahamparks

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #16 on: February 22, 2021, 04:20:54 pm »
The report makes clear that it shouldn't have been licensed to fly in the UK but the application was taken largely at face value and no physical inspection of the hardware took place. That has (hopefully) changed.

It would be nice to assume other country's authorities wouldn't be quite so naive in the same circumstances, but who knows...
 

Offline SilverSolder

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #17 on: February 22, 2021, 04:38:31 pm »
The report makes clear that it shouldn't have been licensed to fly in the UK but the application was taken largely at face value and no physical inspection of the hardware took place. That has (hopefully) changed.

It would be nice to assume other country's authorities wouldn't be quite so naive in the same circumstances, but who knows...

The one thing authorities are really good at is locking the stable door after a horse has bolted.  I don't think it will be as easy to get permission to fly something like this in the future...
 

Offline filssavi

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #18 on: February 22, 2021, 04:40:08 pm »
The report makes clear that it shouldn't have been licensed to fly in the UK but the application was taken largely at face value and no physical inspection of the hardware took place. That has (hopefully) changed.

It would be nice to assume other country's authorities wouldn't be quite so naive in the same circumstances, but who knows...

Usually most of the time it is not being naive, just severe lack of funding
 

Offline Bud

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #19 on: February 22, 2021, 04:52:16 pm »
Let them do the flight with the pilot in the cabin, just let them do it, then it will be what, 170 kilos falling down from the sky and a bit of a scene where it hits the ground.
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Offline SiliconWizard

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #20 on: February 22, 2021, 05:02:39 pm »
The report makes clear that it shouldn't have been licensed to fly in the UK but the application was taken largely at face value and no physical inspection of the hardware took place. That has (hopefully) changed.

It would be nice to assume other country's authorities wouldn't be quite so naive in the same circumstances, but who knows...

The one thing authorities are really good at is locking the stable door after a horse has bolted.  I don't think it will be as easy to get permission to fly something like this in the future...

So far regulations are different depending on the country... Regulation at the EU level was pretty "light" until recently. Starting Jan 2021, it's more stringent and several classes are defined depending mainly on weight. The highest class as far as I've understood is called C4 and allows drones up to 25kg. Beyond 25kg, it's not a drone.

I dunno what the rules were in the UK at the time, but even without any physical inspection - just judging from the weight, which admittedly would have taken exactly 2 seconds, it should never have been allowed to fly. 95kg? It's absolutely nuts.

 

Offline Saskia

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #21 on: February 22, 2021, 07:14:49 pm »
Well, in that case it seems quite obvious that the company has willfully broken the law in quite a few countries and instances. Where is the prosecutor and why has the company not been shut down ?

And why do I see parallels to the issue with the swiss guy who want to test his non certified eeg concoction on unsuspecting victims ? ...
Why? This happened in the UK, you cannot apply AUS law to UK.
In Oz there is NO way to fly this airframe 'legally'. There is a complete approvals process even for test flights. Those of us that play in this space take it very seriously
Maybe. Maybe the law is different in the UK. This is from the report:

Quote
The Civil Aviation Authority’s Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Unit had assessed the
operator’s application and, after clarification and amendment of some aspects, issued an
exemption to the Air Navigation Order to allow flights in accordance with the operator’s
Operating Safety Case.

So they had contacted the authorities, and they had rights for the test flight. They even went to a local airfield to carry out the test and they didn't just take off in the middle of a town center.

Did the report not state that they lied to the Oz authorities and misrepresented the state of the Oz permit to receive the uk clearance ?
Could be that I got this wrong, but if not, those would be criminal offences.
Entering controlled airspace without authorization is a criminal offence in most countries. Having a working flight termination system  may be a prerequisite to get a launch permit.
Not having a chute based recovery system in place that automatically fires under predefined conditions is a huge no-go.
 

Offline tszaboo

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #22 on: February 22, 2021, 10:49:34 pm »
Did the report not state that they lied to the Oz authorities and misrepresented the state of the Oz permit to receive the uk clearance ?
Could be that I got this wrong, but if not, those would be criminal offences.
Entering controlled airspace without authorization is a criminal offence in most countries. Having a working flight termination system  may be a prerequisite to get a launch permit.
Not having a chute based recovery system in place that automatically fires under predefined conditions is a huge no-go.
IANAL, but I also wouldn't state that they broke the law without proof  of it.
I also dont want to read through all 65 pages of the report, no matter how interesting it is.
But his caught my eye:
Quote
All previous flights in Australia had been performed using a frequency of 915 MHz and
transmitter power of 1 W. The operator indicated in their OSC that due to UK regulations
for this frequency, the transmitter power had to be limited to 25 mW..
Unfortunate. They set the legal limits for their transmitter, and lost control because of the reduced range. :(
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Offline grahamparks

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #23 on: February 22, 2021, 11:18:17 pm »
Did the report not state that they lied to the Oz authorities and misrepresented the state of the Oz permit to receive the uk clearance ?

They told the British that is was required to be certified in Australia, not that it had actually been certified! An amazing bit of blagging if it's as bald as the report implies.

The British CAA seems to have granted their license on the assumption the drone would be operating at a very low altitude, at low speeds and in a designated area away from buildings and people, and the kill switch would ensure that. Hence it didn't need parachutes or anything fancy like actual safety.

It makes the shoddiness of the kill switch system much much worse.
 

Offline Saskia

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Re: 95 kg drone with howyadoin' Arduino bodgery crashes - made in Straya!
« Reply #24 on: February 23, 2021, 12:05:32 am »
Well, tbh, I think those are 2 different issues. When I have a kill switch or flight termination system, I must consider the weight of my vehicle and possible impact and endangerment my vehicle poses to the unsuspecting public. Eg.. If I remember correctly, the Delft university group had to build a system that separated other airframe if radar lock was lost, thus effectively destroying their vehicle. In our own concoctionswee had to build in apogee detectors that automatically deployed chutes (drogue and main) at predefined altitudes, and depending on the weight of our vehicle had to put in at least one independent backup system. Still, our launches were held way outside populated areas ...

Anyway.
If the drone operators misrepresented facts in their application the state prosecutor should have a look at the data and decide whether to initiate criminal proceedings.

Just my 2c
 
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