### Author Topic: Making an array of LTZ1000  (Read 1167 times)

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#### dietert1

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##### Making an array of LTZ1000
« on: March 22, 2023, 10:57:40 am »
Having six LTZ1000 in the drawer i studied a little how to use them as an array in an external oven. From my ADR1399 experiments i learned how to make ovens big enough for large filter caps and for 7 to 10 V gain stages.
A known way to adjust the TC of a LTZ1000 reference is a small resistor in series with the zener. It forms a voltage divider together with the 120 Ohm resistor that determines zener current. In effect we amplify the compensation of the temperature dependent Ube. The two resistors need to be precision parts and we can tune the gain a little using reasonable quality tuning resistors. To reduce number of iterations one needs to adopt a numerical model.
Using parts from the drawer i made two cells of the array and adjusted the first reference to zero TC using a hairdryer on the bench. The adjustment resistor of 18,33 Ohm consists of 2x UPW25 10R + MF 1% 220R. The second LTZ1000 got the same compensation and the board went into the incubator for temperature sweeps.
In the diagram readings are shown as deviation from the average voltage during the sweep:
Ref1 Average = 7.186412 V
Ref2 Average = 7.165433 V
The result shows a zero TC of the first reference at about 35 °C, a nice result. The real chip temperature will be a little higher, but not much (non-A version, long legs, 4 mA * 6.6 V = 26 mW).
The second reference was overcompensated. After some iterations of fine tuning it arrived at a compensation resistor of 16.91 Ohm in order to have the same zero TC temperature as the first reference. The agreement between both references is about 0.07 uV/K or 0.01 ppm/K and stable.
From the tuning process i determined the TC of Ref2 Ube as -2,07 mV/K. Ube is 488 mV at 20 °C.
Both reference TC measurements exhibit a very similar curvature. Without the tuning resistor the zero TC temperature would be higher, maybe closer to the recommended LTZ1000 oven temperature.
Soon more precision resistors will arrive in order to complete the other four cells of the array. I hope the observed 1 ppm "hysteresis" will then disappear.

Regards, Dieter

PS:
Measurements are from a Keithley 2700 with 7706 multiplexer plugin and of remarkable quality for this so-called 6.5 digit meter. Each data point is the average of 30 samples of 5 PLC ("slow"). The calculated difference between the two LTZ1000 references has a standard deviation of 0.91 uV over the whole sweep.

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#### dietert1

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##### Re: Making an array of LTZ1000
« Reply #1 on: March 22, 2023, 12:13:47 pm »
About the curvature: There is a 1 ppm peak to peak range of about 8 K. That means in order to reach 0.01 ppm peak to peak the common oven needs to be stable to +/- 0.4 K, a fairly easy requirement.
Total power consumption will be about 5.5 mA per cell: 4 mA zener + 1.5 mA for opamp. Times 6 cells and at a supply voltage of 10 V this gives a total of 330 mW. In comparison the ADR1399 evaluation kit consumes about 600 mW.

Regards, Dieter

#### Kleinstein

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##### Re: Making an array of LTZ1000
« Reply #2 on: March 22, 2023, 12:25:06 pm »
If the LTZ1000 is used with the intended configuration with the heater active, there is no need to really trim the TC of the unheated reference. A crude compensation (e.g. some 10 or 15 Ohm - less than actually needed to get zero TC) should be enough to reduce the sensitivity to the oven set point quite a bit (e.g. a factor of 2).

The problem with the extra resistor is that it adds another critical resistor and also makes R1 more sensitive. With a resistor of 12 Ohm one would have 10% of R1 and thus some 50 mV contribution to the reference directly proportional to the extra resistor. So this would be an attenuation factor of about 140. With a larger resistance the attenuation goes down. So one trades a reduction in the importance of the set point divider for an additional resistor, that is about as critical.

The good points about the oven set point is that one only needs a ratio and one can measure that voltage to check if the set point divider is actually drifting by a significant amount. So I would rather prefer the oven set point over the extra resistor to trim the TC.

For the hysteresis it may be worth limiting the heater power. In the standard circuit the heat up would quite fast and with high power. Except for a possible high power peak I don't see why an external heater is much different from the internal heater.  It can still be interesting if just an external oven help against the hysteresis, I would not expect it to do.

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#### dietert1

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##### Re: Making an array of LTZ1000
« Reply #3 on: March 22, 2023, 12:46:04 pm »
Yes, for a single LTZ1000 the discussion will be different.
In my case using an external oven saves on circuitry and power consumption. And the oven is needed anyway for the filter caps and the 7 to 10 V gain stage.
Meanwhile i moved the complete analog temperature controller of the ADR1399 setup inside the oven. This way it works much better than an external controller, for example an Arroyo TecSource.

Regards, Dieter

#### dietert1

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##### Re: Making an array of LTZ1000
« Reply #4 on: March 22, 2023, 06:45:01 pm »
An oven is under construction as well. The oven is a Weidmüller Klippon K6 and measures 18 x 14 x 10 cm. Until now it contains nothing but two film capacitors 380 uF 400 VDC. In order to see their leakage current they have to be at constant temperature. Maybe for a Sallen-Key filter or for a PWM filter.

Regards, Dieter
« Last Edit: March 22, 2023, 06:48:37 pm by dietert1 »

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#### GigaJoe

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##### Re: Making an array of LTZ1000
« Reply #5 on: March 23, 2023, 03:23:19 am »
had to build some similar ,a few.

the best material white Styrofoam panels , they also cheapest get the thinnest one ( i think my 3\4 in) .   Construction insulation panel has less insulation factor much dense and a bit differ requirements.
places where most leak are panel edges where panels \ pieces connect together. so I cut \ build a box with internal space i want ,  use a glue gun to glue panels in the box . then use sticky aluminum tape to cover the box. then second layer of panel styrofoam , cover in aluminium foil, an then 3-rd one as well. the front panel with all wire , shaped in steps like a safe door , ( if you do just rectangular, problem to isolate edges. )  (aluminum foil are humidity barrier as well)

in such construction usually i need approx 0.8W of heater to keep internal temperature around +45C  when outside +18C and outer walls showh +23C

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#### dietert1

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##### Re: Making an array of LTZ1000
« Reply #6 on: March 23, 2023, 08:22:05 am »
Similar boxes i made for our three low thermal EMF relay muxes and i am using one of them for the ADR1399 setup.
The insulation together with the thermal mass of the aluminium enclosure acts as a thermal low pass - with a time constant of several hours. This helps with the temperature controller as the residual temperature errors are proportional to speed of incoming temperature change. I mean with a simple analog PI controller.

However insulation must not be perfect as this will limit the power consumption inside. Inside the ADR1399 box i have 600 mW of the evaluation kit plus three opamps plus about 1 W of heating to keep it at 38 °C. The new oven will certainly require more heating. Anyway i can later make another outer box if this one isn't good enough. I understand the advantage of using more than one layer of aluminium - as lateral temperature equalizer and as humidity barrier.
The humidity sensor inside the ADR1399 setup never changes more than 0.2 %. These IP66 boxes are near hermetic and a little bag of desiccant inside will keep humidity constant. After temperature change it takes a day to reestablish constant relative humidity.

One problem with these ovens is the startup time. In some HP crystal ovens i have seen a second stronger heater that shuts off once the temperatur arrives close to set value.

Regards, Dieter

Smf