Author Topic: Dim OLED Screen replacement for Agilent Keysight U1253A U1253B U1273A U1273AX  (Read 48558 times)

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Offline onesystemTopic starter

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Background: U1273AX has OLED display that is dying. OLED display uses SSD1303 controller, EOL of which was in 2010. Current OLEDs of same parameters use SSD1309 controller, command set of which is slightly different. Direct replacement results in mirror inverted image plus shift of the display by two columns.

Here is the translated to English German document (I Google translated it) that basically explains the problem:
https://drive.proton.me/urls/3PFD4JFY74#9A1wSB7HVweb

Instead of adding circuitry I thought if it is possible at all to adjust the firmware to the U1273AX directly.
Keysight provides firmware updates for the multimeter. Here is the latest 3.03 version:
https://drive.proton.me/urls/N55QYAYX80#j24y3g6IIvZT

Inside it there is a binary file u1273ax_v303.ag which is uploaded to the D78F0547 during an update.

Thankfully there is an awesome soul who wrote a decompiler for this series of microcontrollers:
https://github.com/mnaberez/k0dasm
It is written to work with ASxxxx Cross Assembler: https://shop-pdp.net/ashtml/asxget.php

I had to update two files command.py and symbols.py with command sets and pinouts that correspond with D78F0547
Here are the links to them:
https://drive.proton.me/urls/SERRTAHHZM#XDrd7wwvzOkc
https://drive.proton.me/urls/NXZ45SNNMW#aJBO1dpW3PZv

Here is the hardware manual for 78K0 series and also programming document:
https://drive.proton.me/urls/SF51ZB1RF4#R0M7AdtgC0SV
https://drive.proton.me/urls/G0F5REFDBC#tp38ti26zHNf

Here is the datasheet for ssd1303 controller:
https://drive.proton.me/urls/VGWZK8FXJR#RXWok2fGv61F

Here is the datasheet for ssd1309 controller:
https://drive.proton.me/urls/F8B3KZF1G8#x5yEJGvQsdlz

I do not know assembly. Can someone who understands all this please at least encourage me to continue or tell me this is an impossible task, and why. It of course would be awesome if someone is willing to help to adjust firmware to be compatible with SSD1309, but I cannot hope it will happen.
I do not want to spend many hours of monkeying around with assembly and understanding all of the ins and outs of controllers just to find out down the road that it is impossible to adjust this firmware successfully.

How I plan to upload the firmware - roll back existing 3.03 version to 3.01 on meter, then update it back to 3.03 but with edited code. Keysight allows rolling back this multimeter.

Additional info:

The D78F0547 is communicating to the screen via SPI
The following pins are related to OLED SSD1303 PCB:

pin   func
============================================
58   P57   (Port 5) 0xFF05
57   P56   (Port 5) 0xFF05
56   P55   (Port 5) 0xFF05
55   P54   (Port 5) 0xFF05
45   P53   (Port 5) 0xFF05
44   P52   (Port 5) 0xFF05
43   P51   (Port 5) 0xFF05
42   P50   (Port 5) 0xFF05
69   P130   (Port 13) 0xFF0D
75   P145/STB0   Port 14 / Serial strobe      (Serial interface CSIA0) 0xFF0E
76   P144/SOA0   Port 14 / Serial data output      (Serial interface CSIA0) 0xFF0E
77   P143/SIA0      Port 14 / Serial data input      (Serial interface CSIA0) 0xFF0E
============================================

Thank you for your attention!
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:06:10 pm by onesystem »
 
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Offline DavidAlfa

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #1 on: October 31, 2023, 07:16:24 am »
How to replace the Agilent / Keysight OLED display for just $10!

- Buy the display: Aliexpress (Or search for "SSD1309 8080").

   1985341-0

- You might need to install the Prolific drivers. If getting code 10, install the attached drivers.
- Make sure Windows is using them: Open the Device Manager, check those under USB devices/USB serial port and COM ports/USB serial port, replace driver if needed.
- Don't attempt loading a firmware from another model, it'll brick the device! (Not irreversible, see Recovering section below)


Agilent / Keysight U1273A / U1273AX

  If your device has firmware version v4.xx it will work straight away, no firmware modification is required!

 - Confirmed working!
 - Download and extract U1273A(X)_V303_mod.zip.
 - Run the updater.

 - Original installers from Keysight: U1273A, U1273AX .
   Must be v3.01, newer version will check the current firmware and block the update if already in the latest version!
   Just change the firmware name to U1273A(X)_V301.AG. (A or AX).


Agilent / Keysight U1253A

  - Confirmed working!
  - Download and unpack Agilent U1253A Firmware Update V120_mod.zip.
  - Run the updater.


Agilent / Keysight U1253B

 - Same mod as 1253A, so it should work.
 - Download and extract U1253B_V304_1123a_mod.zip.
 - Run the updater.


Reverse enginnering details

All the bits & low-level details can be found few posts below.


Recovery

If something goes wrong, it's pretty easy to recover using a usb-serial converter, read the messages starting here.
« Last Edit: February 03, 2024, 12:11:13 pm by DavidAlfa »
Hantek DSO2x1x            Drive        FAQ          DON'T BUY HANTEK! (Aka HALF-MADE)
Stm32 Soldering FW      Forum      Github      Donate
 
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Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #2 on: November 03, 2023, 11:46:53 pm »
Looks like the column shift by +2 is here:
Code: [Select]
ROM:4538                 movw    MUL_B, AX
ROM:453A                 mov     X, #80h
ROM:453C                 call    !MUL            ; :AX*MUL_B
ROM:453F                 movw    HL, AX
ROM:4540                 add     A, #02h ; <<<<<<<<<< add 2 to start addr
ROM:4542                 movw    HL, AX
ROM:4543                 movw    AX, #0080h
ROM:4546                 push    AX
ROM:4547                 movw    DE, #I2CBuf80
ROM:454A                 push    DE
ROM:454B                 movw    AX, HL
ROM:454C                 call    !I2CSend

Edit: @DavidAlfa: thanks, man, I've mapped most of the I2C-related lower level stuff just to find out that firmware talks to two addresses: A0 (EEPROM ?) and 90 (LM75 ?), then read entire thread again and found that only ref to I2C is your last message, OP never mentioned it  :-DD
« Last Edit: November 04, 2023, 12:36:56 am by abyrvalg »
 
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Offline onesystemTopic starter

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To anyone who is visiting this thread: DavidAlfa and I have cleaned up the R&D process, so there are no now useless back and forth for many many pages of trials and errors.

You can see in the post #1 original question and request.

In post # 2 is a summary of all the firmware discoveries that have been made by DavidAlfa and also assisted by abyrvalg.

For the later part of firmware modification abyrvalg was not involved and also he has not visited this thread for a while, so his messages are still here showing some of the R&D that was done.

I also reached out to a couple of places on other trheads on eevblog where people are directly wondering what to do with their dim/dying screens and gave a quick summary with links to here for reference.

I hope this work will make life easier for a lot of us who have the same meter!
Maybe similar patching can be done with other Agilent/Keysight meters with an OLED screen if the original OLED is hard to come by.
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:15:24 pm by onesystem »
 
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Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #4 on: November 05, 2023, 02:29:34 pm »
It looks like the flash is divided into two areas:
0000-3000 - bootloader
3000-end - app
App reuses bootloader functions (including those two display write ones), bootloader never calls anything above 3000.
I think the bootloader is never updated (it would need to overwrite itself somehow otherwise, but there is nothing like copy some code to RAM and run from there).
 
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Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #5 on: November 05, 2023, 02:51:06 pm »
You don’t need to extract anything. The .AG file is a full flash image, including the bootloader, which is just gets skipped during flashing. You don’t need to overwrite the bootloader to achieve your things, those patches by DavidAlfa destroying display write functions were just for testing. What you need is to find display control calls from the app area and patch them, not the bootloader (unless some bootloader display functions sending wrong commands are reused by the app).

BTW, that “add 9A” ubfuscation is not add but xor (can be seen in bootloader).
 

Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #6 on: November 05, 2023, 03:40:17 pm »
So we might be able to redirect all the oled calls to a empty memory address, and write our own routine there, there's a big empty area filled with 0xFF.
Yes, even more, instead of identifying/patching all "wrong" commands (there are many C8 writes, some of them are not immediate values, but are taken from var at E309 initialized earlier) I'd just do a dumb search&replace of "call DispWriteCmd" (9A 68 0A) to some "call DispWriteCmdProxy" in an empty area, which would replace C8 arg with C0 and call the original func.
 

Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #7 on: November 05, 2023, 04:00:04 pm »
Ahh, cmd 81 wants a second command cycle? I see now, so my patch is wrong. Removed.
 

Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #8 on: November 05, 2023, 04:14:01 pm »
So there are no C8 commands sent at all, the InitDisplay at 0994 sends C0 (direct scan) and A0 (first seg is 0) - no flip, no shift, what are we solving here?  :-//
Let the OP buy and mount some real display, see what would happen, then fix (if there will be anything to fix).
If something goes wrong, we can proxy the InitDisplay call from the app area (it is at 303C) to call the original func, then write additional commands flipping/remapping something.
 

Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #9 on: November 05, 2023, 04:32:25 pm »
Another patch for the future:
- part of DisplayInit containing "interesting" commands is copied to 7F60+ (entire func doesn't fit there)
- added a jump to func tail in boot
- app's call DisplayInit redirected to 7F60

- the segment mapping cmd (A0 now) is at 7FC7 (replace with A1 to shift by 2)
- the scan direction cmd (C0 now) is at 7FCD (replace with C8 to flip)
 

Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #10 on: November 05, 2023, 04:57:13 pm »
The redirection is already done in my patch, just change 7FC7/7FCD to introduce shift/flip. I didn’t wanted to send additional commands after the cmd AF (turn on) is sent, thus the function transplantation idea.
 

Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #11 on: November 05, 2023, 05:09:51 pm »
Here we go, all 4 combinations of flip and shift
 
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Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #12 on: November 05, 2023, 06:25:58 pm »
Great! So let's wait for the new display to see what exactly we need to fix. We have a proof that we can do it at least.
 
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Offline abyrvalg

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #13 on: November 05, 2023, 08:09:20 pm »
It was a great cooperative job, see you both part 2 :)
 
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Offline onesystemTopic starter

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THIS IS AMAZING! You are a genius!

Now this is the best meter ever, with custom imaging!

For my screen I had to:
- make 128x64px as monochrome BMP
- using coverter you referenced, https://javl.github.io/image2cpp/
- Load the bmp
- Tick "invert image colors"
- Tick "Flip image vertically"
- Draw mode: vertical - 1 bit per pixel
- Click generate code
- download as binary
- Fix the nibble ordering using your program
- Paste the file into FW
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:15:07 pm by onesystem »
 

Offline voltsandjolts

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #15 on: January 17, 2024, 12:52:44 pm »
Well done guys, this is the best fix yet for this dmm!
I need to buy one of these meters now you've made them a bit future proof in such an elegant way.
[although U1272A is still my favourite]
 
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Offline DavidAlfa

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #16 on: January 17, 2024, 08:17:29 pm »
Reverse engineering details in the U1253A / U1253B / U1273A / U1273AX firmware


»  Binary format  «


This part only applies for U1253B, U1273A and  U1273AX updaters, the binary extracted from the U1253A is already reversed.
The updater only checks the file size, there isn't any kind of checksum, so we can modify it freely.

The .AG file is byte-reversed and nibble-swapped.

This first bytes:
Code: [Select]
A0 13 00 00 03 7F 06 7F
Are the actually the last bytes of the firmware:
Code: [Select]
F7 60 F7 30 00 00 31 0A
A tool was writen to perform this task: (Attached, including the sources).
Usage is as follows:
Code: [Select]
  tool.exe [input] [output] [xor]

  This tool is compatible with the .AG firmware file of Agilent/Keysight U1253B, U1273A(X) and maybe others.
  It reverses the byte order and swaps the nibbles, optionally applying a XOR value.
  The output will be the original firmware bytes, ready for modifying or disassembling.
  Once modified, run the tool again to convert it back to the original format, it'll be ready for flashing.

  XOR option is optional and only for research purposes, not required to reverse the original .AG firmware file.
  XOR value must written in hex representation, like 0x9A.

  Examples: tool.exe input.bin output.bin
            tool.exe input.bin output.bin 0x9A



»  Updater format  «


This part only applies for U1253B, U1273A and  U1273AX updaters.
It's not required to get your hands dirty with the updater, just for documenting purposes.
The updater reverses the bytes and nibbles back to normal when sending the firmware to the DMM, but also XORs the data with 0x9A.
Each packet seems to be 1024 firmware bytes + 2 bytes checksum.

First 32 bytes captured data from the updater communication:
Code: [Select]
3A 89 9A 9A 99 E5 9C E5 93 E5 96 E5 95 E5 88 E5
8F E5 82 E5 53 91 3F 91 81 E5 84 E5 BB E5 BE E5

Last 32 bytes of original .ag file:
Code: [Select]
F7 42 F7 12 F7 E1 F7 B1 B0 5A B0 9C F7 81 F7 51
F7 21 F7 F0 F7 C0 F7 90 F7 60 F7 30 00 00 31 0A

Reverse bytes and perform nibble swap:
Code: [Select]
A0 13 00 00 03 7F 06 7F 09 7F 0C 7F 0F 7F 12 7F
15 7F 18 7F C9 0B A5 0B 1B 7F 1E 7F 21 7F 24 7F

XOR everything with 0x9A, matching updater data:  (This detail was essential to later decode the U1253A firmware!)
Code: [Select]
3A 89 9A 9A 99 E5 9C E5 93 E5 96 E5 95 E5 88 E5
8F E5 82 E5 53 91 3F 91 81 E5 84 E5 BB E5 BE E5

No further investigation was performed about the bootloader protocol or packet checksums, as this was not required for the firmware modification.


»  Firmware sections  «


- Bootloader: 0x0000-0x2FFF.
- App: 0x3000-0x7FFFF, 0x8000-0xBFFF(*).

(*) Flash is banked, so depending on the bank register, 0x8000-0xBFFF is mapped to 6 different flash areas:
Code: [Select]
- Bank 0: 0x08000-0x0BFFF
- Bank 1: 0x0C000-0x0FFFF
- Bank 2: 0x10000-0x13FFF
- Bank 3: 0x14000-0x17FFF
- Bank 4: 0x18000-0x1BFFF
- Bank 5: 0x1C000-0x1FFFF

No disassembler supporting 78K0 architecture and banked flash was found.
Thus, most of the work was performed analyzing the common area (0x0000-0x7FFF) and bank 0 (0x8000-0xBFFF).


»  Display replacement  «


 - The difference is not the command set, but the display fabrication.
 - The panel might be wired "backwards", showing a mirrored picture.
 - The SSD1306/SSD1309 controller supports 132x64 resolution, but:
    - Depending on the manufacturer, the first pixel column in 128x64 diplays is connected to controller column 0 or 2.
    - The original displays uses X-offset=2, while the ones found in aliexpress seem to use X-offset=0.
    - This is what causes the weird vertical line when replacing the screen, and the image being slighly shifted.

 - Thus, firmware modification is needed to overcome all of this.


»  Modification  «


The original .ag file must be reversed with the tool to work with k0dasm (Only for .AG firmwares, doesn't apply for U1253A).
Code: [Select]
tool.exe U1273AX_V303.AG fw.bin

Once decoded, it can be partially disassembled after slightly modifying K0dasm (Attached).
Code: [Select]
k0dasm fw.bin > disassembled.txt

Useful links:
- 78K0 instruction manual.
- Very useful assembler example in k0dasm repo: testprog.asm.

With all this, the essential routines were identified:
Code: [Select]
                        call pattern:
send_data: sub_0a5d     9a 5d 0a
send_cmd:  sub_0a68     9a 68 0a
oled_init: sub_0994     9a 94 09
oled_draw: sub_0ac2     9a c2 0a         (Also calling sub_0b20)
oled_pos:  sub_0b20     9a 9a 20

The mcu only updates the APP section, so program under 0x3000 cannot be modified.
Thus, new functions were made and placed in empty areas, replacing any calls to the functions in the bootloader with the new ones.

- Display init: sub_7f60, allowing custom X/Y flip (Credits: abyrvalg).
Code: [Select]
sub_7f60:
    clr1 pm1.0              ;7f60  71 0b 21         <<<--- Same as original function
    clr1 pm1.1              ;7f63  71 1b 21
    mov pu12,#0x00          ;7f66  13 3c 00
    clr1 p1.0               ;7f69  0b 01   
    clr1 p1.1               ;7f6b  1b 01   
    mov pm5,#0x00           ;7f6d  13 25 00
    mov pu5,#0x00           ;7f70  13 35 00
    mov p5,#0x00            ;7f73  11 05 00
    mov PM14,#0x02          ;7f76  13 2e 02
    mov pu14,#0x02          ;7f79  13 3e 02
    set1 P14.3              ;7f7c  3a 0e   
    set1 P14.4              ;7f7e  4a 0e   
    set1 P14.5              ;7f80  5a 0e   
    set1 P14.2              ;7f82  2a 0e   
    movw ax,#0x0064         ;7f84  10 64 00
    call !sub_0946          ;7f87  9a 46 09
    set1 P13.0              ;7f8a  0a 0d   
    clr1 P13.0              ;7f8c  0b 0d   
    movw ax,#0x000a         ;7f8e  10 0a 00
    call !sub_0946          ;7f91  9a 46 09
    set1 P13.0              ;7f94  0a 0d   
    movw ax,#0x00ae         ;7f96  10 ae 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7f99  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00ad         ;7f9c  10 ad 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7f9f  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x008a         ;7fa2  10 8a 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fa5  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00a8         ;7fa8  10 a8 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fab  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x003f         ;7fae  10 3f 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fb1  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00d3         ;7fb4  10 d3 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fb7  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x0000         ;7fba  10 00 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fbd  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x0040         ;7fc0  10 40 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fc3  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00a1         ;7fc6  10 a1 00         <<<--- Segment remap cmd (Y-mirror)
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fc9  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00c0         ;7fcc  10 c0 00         <<<--- Scan direction cmd (X-mirror)
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fcf  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00a6         ;7fd2  10 a6 00
    call !sub_0a68          ;7fd5  9a 68 0a
    br !lab_0a0c            ;7fd8  9b 0c 0a         <<<--- Continue in original function

- Drawing: sub_7ec0 (Calling sub_7e80).
Code: [Select]
sub_7ec0:
    push hl                 ;7ec0  b7               <<<--- Same as original function
    push ax                 ;7ec1  b1     
    push ax                 ;7ec2  b1     
    movw ax,sp              ;7ec3  89 1c   
    movw hl,ax              ;7ec5  d6     
    mov a,[hl+0x0a]         ;7ec6  ae 0a   
    inc a                   ;7ec8  41     
    mov [hl+0x0a],a         ;7ec9  be 0a   
    mov x,#0x00             ;7ecb  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ecd  30     
    push ax                 ;7ece  b1     
    mov a,[hl+0x08]         ;7ecf  ae 08   
    mov x,#0x00             ;7ed1  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ed3  30     
    call !sub_7e80          ;7ed4  9a 80 7e         <<<--- Call new oled position function
    br !lab_0ad9            ;7ed7  9b d9 0a         <<<--- Continue in original function

- Set position: sub_7e80, subtracting a value from the column value to fix the X-offset.
Code: [Select]
sub_7e80:
    push hl                 ;7e80  b7               <<<--- Same as original function
    push ax                 ;7e81  b1     
    movw ax,sp              ;7e82  89 1c   
    movw hl,ax              ;7e84  d6     
    mov a,[hl]              ;7e85  87     
    xch a,x                 ;7e86  30     
    mov a,[hl+0x06]         ;7e87  ae 06   
    movw hl,ax              ;7e89  d6     
    mov a,#0xb0             ;7e8a  a1 b0            <<<--- Row cmd
    or a,l                  ;7e8c  61 6e   
    mov x,#0x00             ;7e8e  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7e90  30     
    call !sub_0a68          ;7e91  9a 68 0a         <<<--- Send cmd
    mov a,h                 ;7e94  67               <<<--- Move column value to reg A
    cmp a,!mem_7e9e         ;7e95  48 9e 7e         <<<--- Compare with subtract value at 0x7e9e
    bnc lab_7e9d            ;7e98  9d 03            <<<--- If carry set, load A with subtract value so it becomes 0 when subtracting
    mov a,!mem_7e9e         ;7e9a  8e 9e 7e
lab_7e9d:
    sub a,#0x02             ;7e9d  1d 02            <<<--- Subtract 2 to column value
    mov h,a                 ;7e9f  77               <<<--- Update H reg for later use in lower column cmd
    and a,#0x0f             ;7ea0  5d 0f            <<<--- Isolate lower column data
    mov x,#0x00             ;7ea2  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ea4  30     
    call !sub_0a68          ;7ea5  9a 68 0a         <<<--- Send cmd
    mov a,h                 ;7ea8  67               <<<--- Move column value to reg A
    ror a,1                 ;7ea9  24               <<<--- Rotate 4 bits to the left to get higher column bits
    ror a,1                 ;7eaa  24     
    ror a,1                 ;7eab  24     
    ror a,1                 ;7eac  24     
    and a,#0x0f             ;7ead  5d 0f            <<<--- Isolate higher column data
    or a,#0x10              ;7eaf  6d 10            <<<--- High column cnmd
    mov x,#0x00             ;7eb1  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7eb3  30     
    call !sub_0a68          ;7eb4  9a 68 0a         <<<--- Send cmd
    pop ax                  ;7eb7  b0     
    pop hl                  ;7eb8  b6     
    ret                     ;7eb9  af               <<<--- Done, return

New functions:
Code: [Select]
                        call pattern:
oled_init: sub_7f60     9a 60 7f
oled_draw: sub_7ec0     9a c0 7e        (Also calling sub_7e80)
oled_pos:  sub_7e80     9a 80 7e

Hex bytes:
Code: (0x7E80) [Select]
B7 B1 89 1C D6 87 30 AE 06 D6 A1 B0 61 6E A0 00 30 9A 68 0A 67 48 9E 7E 9D 03 8E 9E 7E 1D 02 77 5D 0F A0 00 30 9A 68 0A 67 24 24 24 24 5D 0F 6D 10 A0 00 30 9A 68 0A B0 B6 AF 00 00 00 00 00 00 B7 B1 B1 89 1C D6 AE 0A 41 BE 0A A0 00 30 B1 AE 08 A0 00 30 9A 80 7E 9B D9 0A
Code: (0x7F60) [Select]
71 0B 21 71 1B 21 13 3C 00 0B 01 1B 01 13 25 00 13 35 00 11 05 00 13 2E 02 13 3E 02 3A 0E 4A 0E 5A 0E 2A 0E 10 64 00 9A 46 09 0A 0D 0B 0D 10 0A 00 9A 46 09 0A 0D 10 AE 00 9A 68 0A 10 AD 00 9A 68 0A 10 8A 00 9A 68 0A 10 A8 00 9A 68 0A 10 3F 00 9A 68 0A 10 D3 00 9A 68 0A 10 00 00 9A 68 0A 10 40 00 9A 68 0A 10 A1 00 9A 68 0A 10 C0 00 9A 68 0A 10 A6 00 9A 68 0A 9B 0C 0A

Because the entire firmware can't be disassembled, a manual pattern search and replace was performed:
Code: [Select]
- "9A 94 09" (call !sub_0994) -> "9A 60 7F" (call !sub_7f60)
- "9A 20 0B" (call !sub_0b20) -> "9A 80 7E" (call !sub_7e80)
- "9A C2 0A" (call !sub_0ac2) -> "9A C0 7E" (call !sub_7ec0)

Now, the user can easily patch the .AG file (Updater format, not reversed) using any hex editor like HxD to fix any difference in the screen:
Code: [Select]
Address        Value               Function
0x18032        0x0C / 0x8C         X-mirror off / on
0x18038        0x0A / 0x1A         Y-mirror off / on
0x18161        0x00-0xFF           X-offset subtract value, nibble-swapped, so 0x00 / 0x10 / 0x20 for 0/-1/-2 pixel offset (Subtracted to the default 2 offset)

Remember this is hex, use a decimal to hexadecimal converter.
For example, set 10 pixel X-offset: The number to put there is not 10 -> swap -> 0x01! 10=0x0A in hex, after swapping=0xA0.

The original firmware uses X-offset of 2, so applying a subtract value higher than 2 won't make any effect (Tested for underflow).
If for whatever reason, instead subtracting you want to increase the column address, patch as following:
Code: [Select]
0x18162        Replace   [D1 E7 E9 E8 30 D9 E7 E9 84]   with   [D0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00].

Address        Value               Function
0x18167        0x00-0xFF           X-offset add value, nibble-swapped, so 0x00 / 0x10 / 0x20 for 0/+1/+2 pixel offset (Added to the default 2 offset)

After modification, tool must be run again on the modified file to became ready to be flashed with the updater:
Code: [Select]
tool.exe fw_modded.AG U1273AX_V303.bin

Additionally, the boot logos were located and can be easily modified now.
This procedure is identical in v3.03 and v4.02 firmwares.
Offsets of the images in the .AG file (Updater format, not reversed):
 - U1237AX logo:        0x8000-0x83FF
 - KEYSIGHT screen:   0x8400-0x87FF

Make a 128x64px image in Paint or whatever, save as monochrome BMP.
Use this converter: https://javl.github.io/image2cpp/
  - Load the bmp.
  - Tick "Flip image vertically".
  - Draw mode: vertical - 1 bit per pixel.
  - If the image color appears inverted, tick "Invert image colors".
  - Click generate code.
  - Download as binary.
  - Only for firmwares in .AG format: Fix the nibble and byte ordering: "tool.exe downloaded.bin fixed.bin"
  - Open both the .ag firmware and fixed picture in HxD.
  - In the image data, Right click over the data, click select All, Copy.
  - Go to the FW data, Control+G, write this offset (hex):
       - U1237AX logo:        8000
       - KEYSIGHT screen:   8400
  - Right click on that byte, "Paste writing". If you get a warning like "This operation will change the file size", you're doing it wrong.
  - Save the file.

To load the modded firmware into the DMM, rename the modded file to "U1273AX_V303.AG", place it in the updater folder and run the updater.


I quickly analyzed v4.02 to find out it's very much the same thing, the addresses of the display functions and the boot pictures are the same.
But it seems be already doing the same as this mod, so no action required at all! Just replace the display with the one from the aliexpress!

Code: (sub_0b20 (Display position)) [Select]
    cmp a,h                 ;0b2c  61 4f         <<<--- Check if column is 0
    bnc lab_0b31            ;0b2e  9d 01         <<<--- If not, decrease h
    dec h                   ;0b30  57            <<<--- Otherwise skip
lab_0b31:
    mov a,#0x00             ;0b31  a1 00   
    cmp a,h                 ;0b33  61 4f         <<<--- (Again) Check if column is 0
    bnc lab_0b38            ;0b35  9d 01         <<<--- If not, decrease h
    dec h                   ;0b37  57            <<<--- Otherwise skip

Code: (sub_0994 (Display init)) [Select]
    movw ax,#0x00a1         ;09fa  10 a1 00         <<<--- Segment remap cmd (Y-mirror)
    call !sub_0a68          ;09fd  9a 68 0a
    movw ax,#0x00c0         ;0a00  10 c0 00         <<<--- Scan direction cmd (X-mirror)
    call !sub_0a68          ;0a03  9a 68 0a



Specific for U1253B:
This write-up was made for the U1253B v3.04 firmware.

Original:
Code: [Select]
                        call pattern:
send_data: sub_05c6     9a c6 05
send_cmd:  sub_05d1     9a d1 05
oled_init: sub_04f5     9a f5 04
oled_draw: sub_062c     9a 2c 06         (Also calling sub_068a)
oled_pos:  sub_068a     9a 8a 06

New functions:
Code: [Select]
                        call pattern:
oled_init: sub_7f60     9a 60 7f
oled_draw: sub_7ee6     9a e6 7e        (Also calling sub_7eac)
oled_pos:  sub_7eac     9a ac 7e

- Display init: sub_7f60:
Code: [Select]
sub_7f60:
    clr1 pm1.0              ;7f60  71 0b 21         <<<--- Same as original function
    clr1 pm1.1              ;7f63  71 1b 21
    mov pu12,#0x00          ;7f66  13 3c 00
    clr1 p1.0               ;7f69  0b 01   
    clr1 p1.1               ;7f6b  1b 01   
    mov pm5,#0x00           ;7f6d  13 25 00
    mov pu5,#0x00           ;7f70  13 35 00
    mov p5,#0x00            ;7f73  11 05 00
    mov PM14,#0x02          ;7f76  13 2e 02
    mov pu14,#0x02          ;7f79  13 3e 02
    set1 P14.3              ;7f7c  3a 0e   
    set1 P14.4              ;7f7e  4a 0e   
    set1 P14.5              ;7f80  5a 0e   
    set1 P14.2              ;7f82  2a 0e   
    movw ax,#0x0064         ;7f84  10 64 00
    call !sub_0946          ;7f87  9a 46 09
    set1 P13.0              ;7f8a  0a 0d   
    clr1 P13.0              ;7f8c  0b 0d   
    movw ax,#0x000a         ;7f8e  10 0a 00
    call !sub_0946          ;7f91  9a 46 09
    set1 P13.0              ;7f94  0a 0d   
    movw ax,#0x00ae         ;7f96  10 ae 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7f99  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x00ad         ;7f9c  10 ad 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7f9f  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x008a         ;7fa2  10 8a 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fa5  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x00a8         ;7fa8  10 a8 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fab  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x003f         ;7fae  10 3f 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fb1  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x00d3         ;7fb4  10 d3 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fb7  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x0000         ;7fba  10 00 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fbd  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x0040         ;7fc0  10 40 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fc3  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x00a1         ;7fc6  10 a1 00         <<<--- Segment remap cmd (Y-mirror)
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fc9  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x00c0         ;7fcc  10 c0 00         <<<--- Scan direction cmd (X-mirror)
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fcf  9a d1 05
    movw ax,#0x00a6         ;7fd2  10 a6 00
    call !sub_05d1          ;7fd5  9a d1 05
    br !lab_0575            ;7fd8  9b 75 05         <<<--- Continue in original function

- Drawing: sub_7ee6:
Code: [Select]
sub_7ec0:
    push hl                 ;7ee6  b7               <<<--- Same as original function
    push ax                 ;7ee7  b1     
    push ax                 ;7ee8  b1     
    movw ax,sp              ;7ee9  89 1c   
    movw hl,ax              ;7eeb  d6     
    mov a,[hl+0x0a]         ;7eec  ae 0a   
    inc a                   ;7eee  41     
    mov [hl+0x0a],a         ;7eef  be 0a   
    mov x,#0x00             ;7ef1  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ef3  30     
    push ax                 ;7ef4  b1     
    mov a,[hl+0x08]         ;7ef5  ae 08   
    mov x,#0x00             ;7ef7  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ef9  30     
    call !sub_7eac          ;7efa  9a ac 7e         <<<--- Call new oled position function
    br !lab_0643            ;7efd  9b 43 06         <<<--- Continue in original function

- Set position: sub_7eac:
Code: [Select]
sub_7eac:
    push hl                 ;7eac  b7               <<<--- Same as original function
    push ax                 ;7ead  b1     
    movw ax,sp              ;7eae  89 1c   
    movw hl,ax              ;7eb0  d6     
    mov a,[hl]              ;7eb1  87     
    xch a,x                 ;7eb2  30     
    mov a,[hl+0x06]         ;7eb3  ae 06   
    movw hl,ax              ;7eb5  d6     
    mov a,#0xb0             ;7eb6  a1 b0            <<<--- Row cmd
    or a,l                  ;7eb8  61 6e   
    mov x,#0x00             ;7eba  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ebc  30     
    call !sub_05d1          ;7ebd  9a d1 05         <<<--- Send cmd
    mov a,h                 ;7ec0  67               <<<--- Move column value to reg A
    cmp a,!mem_7eca         ;7ec1  48 ca 7e         <<<--- Compare with subtract value at 0x7eca
    bnc lab_7ec9            ;7ec4  9d 03            <<<--- If carry set, load A with subtract value so it becomes 0 when subtracting
    mov a,!mem_7eca         ;7ec6  8e ca 7e
lab_7ec9:
    sub a,#0x02             ;7ec9  1d 02            <<<--- Subtract 2 to column value   
    mov h,a                 ;7ecb  77               <<<--- Update H reg for later use in lower column cmd
    and a,#0x0f             ;7ecc  5d 0f            <<<--- Isolate lower column data
    mov x,#0x00             ;7ece  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7ed0  30     
    call !sub_05d1          ;7ed1  9a d1 05         <<<--- Send cmd
    mov a,h                 ;7ed4  67               <<<--- Move column value to reg A 
    ror a,1                 ;7ed5  24               <<<--- Rotate 4 bits to the left to get higher column bits
    ror a,1                 ;7ed6  24     
    ror a,1                 ;7ed7  24     
    ror a,1                 ;7ed8  24     
    and a,#0x0f             ;7ed9  5d 0f            <<<--- Isolate higher column data
    or a,#0x10              ;7edb  6d 10            <<<--- High column cmd
    mov x,#0x00             ;7edd  a0 00   
    xch a,x                 ;7edf  30     
    call !sub_05d1          ;7ee0  9a d1 05         <<<--- Send cmd
    pop ax                  ;7ee3  b0     
    pop hl                  ;7ee4  b6     
    ret                     ;7ee5  af               <<<--- Done, return

Hex bytes:
Code: (0x7EAC) [Select]
B7 B1 89 1C D6 87 30 AE 06 D6 A1 B0 61 6E A0 00 30 9A D1 05 67 48 CA 7E 9D 03 8E CA 7E 1D 02 77 5D 0F A0 00 30 9A D1 05 67 24 24 24 24 5D 0F 6D 10 A0 00 30 9A D1 05 B0 B6 AF B7 B1 B1 89 1C D6 AE 0A 41 BE 0A A0 00 30 B1 AE 08 A0 00 30 9A AC 7E 9B 43 06
Code: (0x7F60) [Select]
71 0B 21 71 1B 21 13 3C 00 0B 01 1B 01 13 25 00 13 35 00 11 05 00 13 2E 02 13 3E 02 3A 0E 4A 0E 5A 0E 2A 0E 10 64 00 9A A7 04 0A 0D 0B 0D 10 0A 00 9A A7 04 0A 0D 10 AE 00 9A D1 05 10 AD 00 9A D1 05 10 8A 00 9A D1 05 10 A8 00 9A D1 05 10 3F 00 9A D1 05 10 D3 00 9A D1 05 10 00 00 9A D1 05 10 40 00 9A D1 05 10 A1 00 9A D1 05 10 C0 00 9A D1 05 10 A6 00 9A D1 05 9B 75 05

Because the entire firmware can't be disassembled, a manual pattern search and replace was performed:
Code: [Select]
- "9A F5 04" (call !sub_04f5) -> "9A 60 7F" (call !sub_7f60)
- "9A 2C 06" (call !sub_062c) -> "9A AC 7E" (call !sub_7eac)
- "9A 8A 06" (call !sub_068a) -> "9A E6 7E" (call !sub_7ee6)

Patching offsets: ( .AG file in updater format, not reversed)
Code: [Select]
Address        Value               Function
0x18032        0x0C / 0x8C         X-mirror off / on
0x18038        0x0A / 0x1A         Y-mirror off / on
0x18161        0x00-0xFF           X-offset subtract value, nibble-swapped, so 0x00 / 0x10 / 0x20 for 0/-1/-2 pixel offset (Subtracted to the default 2 offset)

If for whatever reason, instead subtracting you want to increase the column address, patch as following:
Code: [Select]
0x18162        Replace   [D1 E7 E9 E8 30 D9 E7 E9 84]   with   [D0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00].

Address        Value               Function
0x18161        0x00-0xFF           X-offset add value, nibble-swapped, so 0x00 / 0x10 / 0x20 for 0/+1/+2 pixel offset (Added to the default 2 offset)

The boot logos are placed in the same area as U1273A(X), same procedure applies.


Specific for U1253A:
This write-up was made for the U1253A v1.20 firmware.
The firmware is contained inside the updater .exe, it uses a completely different format, so a new tool was needed.

There's a RTF text file embedded in the executable containing Intel Hex format, it's clearly encoded.
Code: [Select]
:10  0000  A5  9F2CC0C03C4039403640334030402D40  45
:10  0010  A8  573D5A3D5545B144593D5C3D633D663D  0C
:10  0020  80  3D65306537652A6529652C6523652665  BC
:10  0030  98  0D4D704D774D7A4D794D7C4D634D664D  94

Checksum follows Intel Hex standard: Sum all bytes in (100000A59F2CC0C03C4039403640334030402D401 = 0xBB) and make 2-complement: 0x45.

These bytes will likely match this (From U1273A):
Code: [Select]
A0 13 FF FF 03 7F 06 7F 09 7F 0C 7F 0F 7F 12 7F
15 7F 18 7F 2D 07 09 07 1B 7F 1E 7F 21 7F 24 7F
27 7F 2A 7F 2D 7F 30 7F 33 7F 36 7F 39 7F 3C 7F
3F 7F 42 7F 45 7F 48 7F 4B 7F 4E 7F 51 7F 54 7F

It's XOR'red with [0x9A + 3rd field field]
Code: [Select]
:10  0000  A5  [ 9F2CC0C03C4039403640334030402D40 ] ^ [0x9A+0xA5] = [ A0 13 00 00 03 7F 06 7F 09 7F 0C 7F 0F 7F 12 7F ]
:10  0010  A8  [ 573D5A3D5545B144593D5C3D633D663D ] ^ [0x9A+0xA8] = [ 15 7F 18 7F C9 0B A5 0B 1B 7F 1E 7F 21 7F 24 7F ]
:10  0020  80  [ 3D65306537652A6529652C6523652665 ] ^ [0x9A+0x80] = [ 27 7F 2A 7F 2D 7F 30 7F 33 7F 36 7F 39 7F 3C 7F ]
:10  0030  98  [ 0D4D704D774D7A4D794D7C4D634D664D ] ^ [0x9A+0x98] = [ 3F 7F 42 7F 45 7F 48 7F 4B 7F 4E 7F 51 7F 54 7F ]


A tool was writen to extract/insert the firmware from/to the updater executable:  (Attached, including the sources)
Code: [Select]
  tool_U1253A.exe [ -e | -i ] [ input_file ] [ output_file ]

  This tool extracts/inserts the firmware from/to the Agilent U1253A updater executable
  Only tested with "Agilent U1253A Firmware Update V120.exe"!

    -e: Extract the firmware from the updater executable into a file.
        The output will be the original firmware bytes, ready for modifying or disassembling.

    -i: Insert the firmware file into an existing updater executable.

  Example: tool -e updater.exe firmware.bin (firmware.bin is created)
  Example: tool -i firmware.bin updater.exe (firmware.bin is inserted into update.exe)

The routines were the same, and placed in the same addresses as the U1253B.

Modification was identical to the one in U1253B, however the extracted bin file is not reversed, and the .exe can't be directly patched, so the modifications are different:

Patching offsets: (Over the file extracted using the tool)
Code: [Select]
Address        Value               Function
0x7FCD        0xC0 / 0xC8         X-mirror off / on
0x7FC7        0xA0 / 0xA1         Y-mirror off / on
0x7ECA        0x00-0xFF           X-offset subtract value, 0x00 / 0x01 / 0x02 for 0/-1/-2 pixel offset (Subtracted to the default 2 offset)

If for whatever reason, instead subtracting you want to increase the column address, patch as following:
Code: [Select]
0x7EC1       Replace   [48 9E 7E 9D 03 8E 9E 7E 1D]   with   [00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0D].

Address        Value               Function
0x7ECA        0x00-0xFF           X-offset add value, 0x00 / 0x01 / 0x02 for 0/+1/+2 pixel offset (Added to the default 2 offset)

Offsets of the images in the extracted file after using the tool:
 - U1253A logo:          Not there?
 - Agilent screen:        0x1758A-0x17989
 - Agilent screen:        0x1798B-0x17D8A (Same image, slightly shifted to the left).

Make a 128x64px image in Paint or whatever, save as monochrome BMP.
Use this converter: https://javl.github.io/image2cpp/
  - Load the bmp.
  - Tick "Flip image vertically".
  - Draw mode: vertical - 1 bit per pixel.
  - If the image color appears inverted, tick "Invert image colors".
  - Click generate code.
  - Download as binary.
  - Open both the extracted firmware and .bin picture in HxD.
  - In the image data, Right click over the data, click select All, Copy.
  - Go to the FW data, Control+G, write this offset (hex):
       - Agilent screen:         1758A
       - 2nd Agilent screen:   1798B
  - Right click on that byte, "Paste writing". If you get a warning like "This operation will change the file size", you're doing it wrong.
  - Save the file.
« Last Edit: January 21, 2024, 10:38:39 pm by DavidAlfa »
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Offline onesystemTopic starter

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This is great on 4.02 firmware!

On the other firmware versions, should we do another thread to attract prospective people who have problematic keysight/agilent DMMs with OLED displays?
I am just not sure that they will get to visit this thread since it is nested in microprocessor section..
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:14:49 pm by onesystem »
 

Offline onesystemTopic starter

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 - Download and install the firmware from Keysight: U1273AFirmwareUpdateSoftware-303.zip.
   If not available anymore, it's also attached.


Has to be 3.01:

The 3.01 uploader allows uploading of any firmware to the meter, it does not check the "current" version on the meter itself. The 3.03 uploader will check the current version on the meter, and if it is equal to or is newer then the firmware you are trying to upload, it will greet you with a message saying that your meter has the most current firmware and will not do the upload process.

Firmware uploader 3.01 only cares if two things are in place: firmware is there and is named "u1273ax_v301.ag" regardless of what actual version it is, and if the file is exactly 128KB.
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:14:40 pm by onesystem »
 
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Offline DavidAlfa

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #19 on: January 18, 2024, 12:08:16 am »
Firmware uploader 3.01 only cares if two things are in place: firmware is there and is named "u1273ax_v301.ag" regardless of what actual version it is, and if the file is exactly 128KB.
Aha! Updated  :-+.
But v3.01 file is named "U1273A_V301.AG", not "U1273AX_V301.AG"? Is this correct or did I download the wrong file?
I wonder if that updater could also update other similar DMMs (1253/1273 A/B) by just dropping any .AG file?
« Last Edit: January 18, 2024, 12:22:09 am by DavidAlfa »
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Offline onesystemTopic starter

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https://www.keysight.com/us/en/assets/ndx/9018-33296/miscellaneous/U1273AX-Firmware-Update-Software-Version-3-01.zip

Might be a different version downloaded:

In terms of loader being a universal one - that would be awesome, this project makes me want to have several kinds of these meters to test it with!
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:14:29 pm by onesystem »
 

Offline DavidAlfa

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Re: 8-Bit 78K0: D78F0547 help with firmware modification
« Reply #21 on: January 19, 2024, 01:00:29 pm »
Everything finished after a titanic amount of work!
@onesystem could you test the binary to ensure it's still working?
For the sake of Google and forum search (And the crazy hours I spent digging and documenting everything up): Please edit the title to something like "Modded firmware for OLED replacement in Agilent/Keysight U1253A/B & U1273A(X)".
Absolutely no one is going to search "D78F0547" while trying to fix his display! :D.
Thanks!
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 01:18:19 pm by DavidAlfa »
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Offline onesystemTopic starter

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Looks like I can change subject only for my part of the thread, you can copy subject and paste it in your replies and it should update it too!
 

Offline onesystemTopic starter

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Which firmware is safe to test on my meter do you think? Just the U1273A v303 and U1273AX v303?
I am not certain about the others - let me know if you are pretty sure it will not brick the meter to load v402 on it and also maybe the 1253 versions

I am about to load 303 1273A and 1273AX to test that they are working

2024-01-19 13:20 UDPATE: Loaded modded firmware 1273A v303 into 1273AX meter and it is working great. Screen works beautifully.
2024-01-19 13:34 UPDATE2: Loaded modded firmware 1273AX v303 into 1273AX meter and it is working great as before. Screen works beautifully.
2024-01-19 13:42 UPDATE3: firmwarre from 1253 or 1123 meter is not compatible with 1273AX, it bricks it. I could not test screen alighnment on it. I only presume that reversely, do not try to load 1273 firmware onto 1253 or 1123 meters.
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:46:20 pm by onesystem »
 

Offline DavidAlfa

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The bootloader is never updated, so if you load a firmware for a different bootloader certainly it won't work.
U1237A and AX have the same bootloader functions in the same places so it works, same for U1253A and B, but it's different between 1253 and 1273.

How is it set into update mode?
If it doesn't rely on the app itself, like powering it on with a button pressed, it might be unbrickable.
And it should be, the update procedure can always go wrong, batteries dying, sudden power loss, connection failure...
However I don't have this device and I can't test anything.
« Last Edit: January 19, 2024, 06:42:16 pm by DavidAlfa »
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