Author Topic: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)  (Read 12543 times)

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Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #75 on: May 18, 2024, 06:33:07 pm »
For your purpose, look at the CMSIS library.

https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS_6/latest/General/index.html
I can't find the advantage for what I need.

Why not? It can do FIR filtering, IIR filtering, and various other stuff. It does exactly what you need. And it seems that the code is not just written naively, but tries to benefit from SIMD and DSP instructions, etc. Are you sure that you can do it faster?

Now I need to implement IIR filter to output filtered results.

What kind of IIR filter do you want to design?
Try the functions butter, cheby1, cheby2 or ellip in Matlab or Octave.
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #76 on: May 18, 2024, 06:33:57 pm »
For your purpose, look at the CMSIS library.

https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS_6/latest/General/index.html
I can't find the advantage for what I need.

Look at the CMSIS DSP libraries.

Yes, that's what I meant. I should have been more specific.
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #77 on: May 18, 2024, 06:46:25 pm »
I want to implement a simple second order Butterworth filter. But I think I will have to implement it with fixed point operations (with integers) to gain speed.
Mixing integers and floats has not given me good results in the test I have done. The results are slower than I expected.

I have about 30 CPU cycles per ADC sample (at 2666kHz ADC), so the operations have to be very fast.

Another thing I can do is to group data and apply the filter to aggregate data, not to all samples. But I am not clear how to do it. In that case I could use the CMSIS libraries:

https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__groupFilters.html
« Last Edit: May 18, 2024, 06:49:23 pm by Picuino »
 

Offline dietert1

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #78 on: May 18, 2024, 08:08:44 pm »
Block size should be small if the filter is inside a control loop. Otherwise one can decide depending on available memory.
And if you want more speed, you could use a higher clock frequency. E.g. STM32G4xx MCUs are very similar except they run up to 170 MHz and power consumption will be three times higher.
I happened to get STM32F103 bluepill modules with fake MCUs and replaced them with STM32L433. They are (almost) pin compatible.

Regards, Dieter
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #79 on: May 18, 2024, 08:28:28 pm »
I want to implement a simple second order Butterworth filter. But I think I will have to implement it with fixed point operations (with integers) to gain speed.

You want either arm_biquad_cascade_df1_q15() or biquad_cascade_df1_q31(), for 16-bit and 32-bit integer.
See https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html
A second order IIR needs just a single biquad stage.

Note that most integer CMSIS DSP functions work with Q numbers. At the end this is just a matter of scaling, but you need to take care.

Quote
I have about 30 CPU cycles per ADC sample (at 2666kHz ADC), so the operations have to be very fast.

I have doubts that 30 cycles per sample are enough for a biquad stage. But I may be wrong. You need to measure. I'd measure all three, q15, q31 and float. Don't forget optimization -O2. You can also try if -O3 is even faster.

Quote
Another thing I can do is to group data and apply the filter to aggregate data, not to all samples.

Decimation with a 1st order boxcar filter is likely the fastest you can do. Just add-up (say) 16 adjacent samples and replace the 16 samples with a single sample containing the sum, and so on. I guess this fits into 5 cycles/sample, so that you get (30-5)*16=400 cycles for filtering each decimated sample. However, a 1st order boxcar filter is not a good anti-aliasing filter at all. This may or may not matter, depending on the frequency of a potential undesired (picked-up) interfering signal. If the frequency happens to be folded by the downsampling into the frequency band of interest, then it matters.

What cutoff frequency do you have in mind for the lowpass?

EDIT: The larger the sample rate to cutoff frequency ratio, the higher precision is required for the coefficients and the calculation. Then it can happen that Q15 (16-bit) is not sufficient.
« Last Edit: May 18, 2024, 09:07:52 pm by gf »
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #80 on: May 19, 2024, 10:28:31 am »
For the project I am thinking about now (a Lock-in amplifier) the output frequencies should be in the range from 10kHz (audio output) to 0.1Hz, selectable by software.


EDIT:
Perhaps this is a good election?
arm_biquad_cascade_df1_fast_q31()
https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html#gaa09ea758c0b24eed9ef92b8d1e5c80c2

I'm going to install CMSIS libraries to test it.
« Last Edit: May 19, 2024, 10:33:13 am by Picuino »
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #81 on: May 19, 2024, 10:49:03 am »
How are the CMSIS libraries downloaded and installed?
From the GitHub page is complicated. There is no download button anywhere.
Are they downloaded from the Eclipse environment?
 

Offline Tation

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #82 on: May 19, 2024, 11:42:27 am »
How are the CMSIS libraries downloaded and installed?
From the GitHub page is complicated. There is no download button anywhere.
Are they downloaded from the Eclipse environment?

https://github.com/ARM-software/CMSIS-DSP/releases/tag/v1.15.0
 
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Offline jnk0le

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #83 on: May 19, 2024, 12:51:13 pm »
Quote
I have about 30 CPU cycles per ADC sample (at 2666kHz ADC), so the operations have to be very fast.

I have doubts that 30 cycles per sample are enough for a biquad stage. But I may be wrong. You need to measure. I'd measure all three, q15, q31 and float. Don't forget optimization -O2. You can also try if -O3 is even faster.
If we are talking about latency then it is possible, but not with generic libraries. (TDF2 has O(1) latency)

For such sample rates stm32g4 would be a better choice. It also has a dedicated FIR/IIR hardware.

Another thing I can do is to group data and apply the filter to aggregate data, not to all samples.
In such scenario, it's possible to do low order IIR (2-5 taps). Might require optimized assembly again.

For the project I am thinking about now (a Lock-in amplifier) the output frequencies should be in the range from 10kHz (audio output) to 0.1Hz, selectable by software.
That means you don't need to filter that out of 2,5MSPS signal, which makes things easier.

EDIT:
Perhaps this is a good election?
arm_biquad_cascade_df1_fast_q31()
https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html#gaa09ea758c0b24eed9ef92b8d1e5c80c2
note that the biquad is just second order IIR (2 taps).

- 1 tap iir can be implemented by zoroing 2nd order coeffs
- higher order IIR coefficients (as in the book examples) cannot be applied directly to biquad cascade.
« Last Edit: May 19, 2024, 01:15:34 pm by jnk0le »
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #84 on: May 19, 2024, 01:00:02 pm »
Quote
arm_biquad_cascade_df1_fast_q31()
https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html#gaa09ea758c0b24eed9ef92b8d1e5c80c2
note that biquad is just second order IIR (2 taps).

- 1 tap iir can be implemented by zoroing 2nd order coeffs
- higher order IIR coefficients (as in the book examples) cannot be applied directly to biquad cascade.

The arm_biquad_cascade_xxx() functions implement N cascaded biquad stages, where the output of the first stage is connected to the input of the 2nd stage, and so on. N can be 1, for 2nd order.
 

Offline jnk0le

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #85 on: May 19, 2024, 01:24:50 pm »
Quote
arm_biquad_cascade_df1_fast_q31()
https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html#gaa09ea758c0b24eed9ef92b8d1e5c80c2
note that biquad is just second order IIR (2 taps).

- 1 tap iir can be implemented by zoroing 2nd order coeffs
- higher order IIR coefficients (as in the book examples) cannot be applied directly to biquad cascade.

The arm_biquad_cascade_xxx() functions implement N cascaded biquad stages, where the output of the first stage is connected to the input of the 2nd stage, and so on. N can be 1, for 2nd order.
which require conversion of coefficients from direct form to cascaded
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #86 on: May 19, 2024, 05:59:02 pm »
I have managed to install and use the CMSIS library.
   https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html#ga5563b156af44d1be2a7548626988bf4e
   https://arm-software.github.io/CMSIS-DSP/latest/group__BiquadCascadeDF1.html#ga4e7dad0ee6949005909fd4fcf1249b79

arm_biquad_cascade_df1_q31():
With one second order filter, applied on a 500-sample buffer takes 404us @ 80MHz to run on the STM32L412KB.

I'm going to wait until I receive the STM32G431KB this week to see how its speed increases thanks to a higher clock speed and IIR specific instructions.


EDIT:
The CMSIS library seems fast enough to use it without problems with samples decimated at 1.333MHz.

What I am not clear yet is:
  1. How to generate the 5 filter coefficients (I am now using random ones).
  2. If the ADC data need some kind of treatment to convert them to Q31 format or if they can be used as they are.
« Last Edit: May 19, 2024, 06:09:15 pm by Picuino »
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #87 on: May 19, 2024, 09:48:27 pm »
How to generate the 5 filter coefficients (I am now using random ones).

You can calcuate the transfer function coefficients with "butter".
For 2nd order, the transfer function coefficients are the biquad coefficients.
[ For higher order you would need to decompose them into biquad coefficients for multiple stages. ]

In the coefficients for arm_biquad_cascade_df1_init_q31(), the first entry of a is omitted (always 1), that's why there are only 5 and not 6.

I'm a bit unsure regarding the scaling, but I think the scaling below in conjunction with postShift=1 should work.

Code: [Select]
pkg load signal
fc = 100000    % cutoff frequency
fs = 1333000  % sample rate
[b,a] = butter(2,fc/(fs/2))
coeff = floor([ b -a(2:3) ] / 2 * 2**31 + 0.5)
printf("%d, %d, %d, %d, %d\n", coeff)
% ==> 44314902, 88629804, 44314902, 1448274717, -551792502

Quote
If the ADC data need some kind of treatment to convert them to Q31 format or if they can be used as they are.

Without oversampling:
Code: [Select]
uint16_t sample;  // 0...4095
q31_t qsample = (q31_t) sample - 2048 << 20;

With 4x oversampling:
Code: [Select]
uint16_t sample;  // 0...16380
q31_t qsample = (q31_t) sample - 8192 << 18;
« Last Edit: May 20, 2024, 03:21:11 pm by gf »
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #88 on: May 19, 2024, 10:13:14 pm »
...
I'm a bit unsure regarding the scaling, but I think the scaling below in conjunction with postShift=1 should work.

@Picuino, in order to verify correctness, can you send an impulse

    q31_t samples[100] = { 1073741824, /* 99x 0 */ };

through this filter and print the values of the 100 resulting samples?
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #89 on: May 20, 2024, 09:35:50 am »
arm_biquad_cascade_df1_q31():
With one second order filter, applied on a 500-sample buffer takes 404us @ 80MHz to run on the STM32L412KB.

Hmm, that's about 65 cycles per sample. That seems like a lot to me.

I copied the relevant fragment of the source file of this function to Compiler Explorer: https://godbolt.org/z/nfaM1Yq3P
The (4x unrolled) innermost loop (.L3) has 54 instructions.
According to the table in https://developer.arm.com/documentation/ddi0439/b/CHDDIGAC
this should be about 75 cycles for 4 samples, or less than 20 cycles per sample.
Even if I assume an additional overhead of 200 cycles for the function, it still should be not more than 20 cycles/sample when 500 samples are passed to the function.

Which compiler options did you use to compile CMSIS DSP?

I noticed, btw, that -O3 emits even more instrucions than -O2, so I don't think that -O3 is better here.
[Sorry, mistake. It's 54 vs 55 instructions, so almost the same, but they are arranged differently.]
« Last Edit: May 20, 2024, 09:50:44 am by gf »
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #90 on: May 20, 2024, 02:56:09 pm »
I have tried a smaller and more realistic buffer (size = 100 samples):

Program:

Code: [Select]
        // Define variables
        q31_t pSrc[100];
        q31_t pDst[100];
        arm_biquad_casd_df1_inst_q31 S;
        q31_t pCoeffs[] = { 0x02A43116, 0x0548622C, 0x02A43116, 0xA9AD14E3,
                0x20E3AF76 };
        q31_t pState;

        uart_init();
        while (1) {
            // Initialize buffer pSrc
            for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++)
                pSrc[i] = 0;
            pSrc[0] = 0x40000000;

            // Process data
            arm_biquad_cascade_df1_init_q31(&S, 1, pCoeffs, &pState, 0);
            GPIOA->BSRR = (1 << 3); // Set PA3
            arm_biquad_cascade_df1_q31(&S, pSrc, pDst, 100);
            GPIOA->BRR = (1 << 3);  // Reset PA3

            // Output data
            for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
                printf("0x%08lX\r\n", pDst[i]);
                HAL_Delay(2);
            }
            HAL_Delay(2000);
        }


Hex output:
Code: [Select]
0x0152188B
0x01C02D93
0x007AB721
0x00206613
0x0009AE7F
0x0001CBA3
0x000146DD
0xFFFF99AA
0x00009900
0xFFFF7E85
0x00007EA2
0xFFFF8954
0x00007092
0xFFFF9596
0x000064B0
0xFFFFA0C0
0x00005A1B
0xFFFFAAC2
0x000050A3
0xFFFFB3B7
0x0000482A
0xFFFFBBBB
0x00004095
0xFFFFC2E7
0x000039CC
0xFFFFC952
0x000033BA
0xFFFFCF10
0x00002E4B
0xFFFFD434
0x0000296E
0xFFFFD8CE
0x00002514
0xFFFFDCEC
0x0000212F
0xFFFFE09B
0x00001DB2
0xFFFFE3E8
0x00001A93
0xFFFFE6DC
0x000017C8
0xFFFFE980
0x00001548
0xFFFFEBDD
0x0000130C
0xFFFFEDFB
0x0000110B
0xFFFFEFE0
0x00000F41
0xFFFFF191
0x00000DA7
0xFFFFF315
0x00000C38
0xFFFFF470
0x00000AEF
0xFFFFF5A7
0x000009C9
0xFFFFF6BD
0x000008C2
0xFFFFF7B6
0x000007D7
0xFFFFF895
0x00000704
0xFFFFF95C
0x00000647
0xFFFFFA0F
0x0000059E
0xFFFFFAAF
0x00000507
0xFFFFFB3E
0x00000480
0xFFFFFBBE
0x00000407
0xFFFFFC30
0x0000039B
0xFFFFFC96
0x0000033A
0xFFFFFCF2
0x000002E3
0xFFFFFD44
0x00000295
0xFFFFFD8E
0x00000250
0xFFFFFDCF
0x00000212
0xFFFFFE0A
0x000001DA
0xFFFFFE3F
0x000001A8
0xFFFFFE6E
0x0000017C
0xFFFFFE98
0x00000154
0xFFFFFEBE
0x00000130
0xFFFFFEE0
0x00000110
0xFFFFFEFE
0x000000F3
0xFFFFFF19

Decimal output:
Code: [Select]
22157451
29371795
8042273
2123283
634495
117667
83677
-26198
39168
-33147
32418
-30380
28818
-27242
25776
-24384
23067
-21822
20643
-19529
18474
-17477
16533
-15641
14796
-13998
13242
-12528
11851
-11212
10606
-10034
9492
-8980
8495
-8037
7602
-7192
6803
-6436
6088
-5760
5448
-5155
4876
-4613
4363
-4128
3905
-3695
3495
-3307
3128
-2960
2799
-2649
2505
-2371
2242
-2122
2007
-1899
1796
-1700
1607
-1521
1438
-1361
1287
-1218
1152
-1090
1031
-976
923
-874
826
-782
739
-700
661
-626
592
-561
530
-502
474
-449
424
-402
380
-360
340
-322
304
-288
272
-258
243
-231
« Last Edit: May 20, 2024, 03:01:28 pm by Picuino »
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #91 on: May 20, 2024, 03:06:41 pm »
Response to a step.

Program change:
Code: [Select]
            // Initialize buffer pSrc
            for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++)
                pSrc[i] = 0;
            for (int i = 20; i < 60; i++)
                pSrc[i] = 0x10000;

Decimal output:
Code: [Select]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1352
3145
3635
3766
3803
3812
3815
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
3816
2464
671
180
51
11
5
-1
1
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0
-1
0

EDIT:
There is a scale error. The output should reach the value 65536.
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #92 on: May 20, 2024, 03:14:16 pm »
Optimizing with -O3, filtering 100 samples takes 42us (34 clock cycles per sample @ 80MHz)
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #93 on: May 20, 2024, 03:16:45 pm »
I noticed in the meantime that I was mistaken regarding the sign of the a coefficient. These terms must be subtracted from the accumulator, but the function adds all terms, which means that the a coefficients must be negated.

Please try with coefficients 44314902, 88629804, 44314902, 1448274717, -551792502

The attached plot shows how the impulse response should look like.

EDIT: Corrected commands:
Code: [Select]
pkg load signal
fc = 100000    % cutoff frequency
fs = 1333000  % sample rate
[b,a] = butter(2,fc/(fs/2))
coeff = floor([ b -a(2:3) ] / 2 * 2**31 + 0.5)
printf("%d, %d, %d, %d, %d\n", coeff)
% ==> 44314902, 88629804, 44314902, 1448274717, -551792502


Optimizing with -O3, filtering 100 samples takes 42us (34 clock cycles per sample @ 80MHz)

 :-+
« Last Edit: May 20, 2024, 03:23:59 pm by gf »
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #94 on: May 20, 2024, 03:23:17 pm »
Step response:
Code: [Select]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1352
4968
8412
9806
9861
9540
9309
9236
9246
9271
9286
9289
9288
9286
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
9285
7933
4316
872
-521
-576
-255
-24
49
39
13
-2
-5
-3
-1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Scale error is maintained.
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #95 on: May 20, 2024, 03:26:15 pm »
Impulse response:
Code: [Select]
22157451
59258008
56428053
22829136
896995
-5260972
-3778510
-1196450
163989
418020
239778
54298
-24992
-30807
-14355
-1766
2497
2137
799
-11
-213
-141
-41
8
15
8
1
-2
-2
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
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« Last Edit: May 20, 2024, 03:28:50 pm by Picuino »
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #96 on: May 20, 2024, 03:48:13 pm »
Equivalent script in Python:

Code: [Select]
import scipy
import math

fc = 100000    # Cutoff frequency
fs = 1333000   # Sample rate

b, a = scipy.signal.butter(2, fc, btype='low', analog=False, output='ba', fs=fs)
coeff = list(b) + list(-a)[1:]
coeff = [round(c * (2 ** 30)) for c in coeff]
for c in coeff:
    if c < 0 :
        c += 0x100000000;
    print("  0x%08X," % c)


Coefficients:
Code: [Select]
  0x02A43116,
  0x0548622C,
  0x02A43116,
  0x5652EB1D,
  0xDF1C508A,
 

Online gf

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #97 on: May 20, 2024, 03:49:47 pm »
Impulse response: ...

Which coefficient? Not my latest ones? (44314902, 88629804, 44314902, 1448274717, -551792502 with postShift=1)
What was the height of the impulse?
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #98 on: May 20, 2024, 03:55:00 pm »
Coefficients:
Code: [Select]
        q31_t pCoeffs[] = {44314902, 88629804, 44314902, 1448274717, -551792502};
Height of impulse:
Code: [Select]
pSrc[0]= 0x40000000;
0x40000000 = 1073741824 decimal
 

Offline PicuinoTopic starter

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Re: Starting with STM32 (NUCLEO-L412KB)
« Reply #99 on: May 20, 2024, 03:58:46 pm »
I had set the postShift to zero.

I change it and try again.
 


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