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Electronics => Projects, Designs, and Technical Stuff => Topic started by: Noopy on July 01, 2020, 09:46:39 pm

Title: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 01, 2020, 09:46:39 pm

Hi all!


As some of you know I started some die pictures Topics here. In this topic I will post everything that doesn´t fit into the other topics.


So today let´s start with an old wafer built at the "Werk für Fernsehelektronik Berlin".


(https://richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01.jpg)

50mm and a die with a edge length of 1,2mm that still gives you over 1000 chips.  :-+


(https://richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03.jpg)

The wafer contains six test structures and some big things in the middle.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/wafer/04.jpg)

I assume the squares are some kind of etch markers.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/wafer/10.jpg)

The wafer was nearly done only the metal layer is missing. Well that gives some interesting pictures.
Unfortunately I don´t know which chip they tried to build here.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/wafer/12.jpg)

Nice!  8) :)


More pictures here:
https://richis-lab.de/wafer.htm (https://richis-lab.de/wafer.htm)


 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: magic on July 01, 2020, 10:10:15 pm
Maybe some very minimal bangap reference? But it's just 4 (5?) NPNs, it's nuts.

I think some current sources or thermal sensors might work on similar principle. No idea why it seems to be a dual.

Maybe just a random test wafer, never meant to even resemble any commercial IC product.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 02, 2020, 03:42:07 am
It´s a D220!  :)
=> Two 4-Input-NANDs

I also thought about a bandgap reference   ;D but the 4-emitter-transistor is used for the 4 inputs.  :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: magic on July 02, 2020, 04:52:30 am
I completely forgot about those :palm:

edit
Makes perfect sense :-+
The diodes have to be input protection, the empty area is simply there because bonding pads take too much space.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 04, 2020, 08:14:08 pm

Today I have a e-ink-display-controller for you. It came out of a watch (Crell NC-7279-919).


(https://richis-lab.de/images/eink/01.jpg)

(https://richis-lab.de/images/eink/02.jpg)

RE10E180D1?  :-//


(https://richis-lab.de/images/eink/03.jpg)

I assume these structures are esd protection circuits.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/eink/04.jpg)

I assume these structures are the output stages and some memory for every output.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/eink/07.jpg)

Some Gatearray-Logic.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/eink/09.jpg)

Perhaps a clock generator?  :-//


Some more pictures here:

https://richis-lab.de/E-Paper-Controller.htm (https://richis-lab.de/E-Paper-Controller.htm)

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Twoflower on July 04, 2020, 08:27:35 pm
Not matching the number, but could be a MCU from Renesas: RE Family (https://www.renesas.com/eu/en/products/microcontrollers-microprocessors/re.html)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: T3sl4co1l on July 04, 2020, 08:36:50 pm
E-Paper takes a bunch of weird voltages, could be charge pumps or drive transistors?

Tim
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 04, 2020, 08:41:40 pm
Not matching the number, but could be a MCU from Renesas: RE Family (https://www.renesas.com/eu/en/products/microcontrollers-microprocessors/re.html)

That´s not very likely because there was another IC in the watch which already looks like a CPU. This one has to be the display Controller.



E-Paper takes a bunch of weird voltages, could be charge pumps or drive transistors?

Tim

The "clock generator"? Hm, very small structures for a charge pump.
Supply circuits are perhaps hiding under the area with the metal cover...
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Twoflower on July 04, 2020, 09:01:09 pm
You'e probably right. It wouldn't make much sense. It was just a quick shot.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 04, 2020, 09:03:23 pm
Every hint is welcome!  :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 08, 2020, 08:52:27 pm
Today I can show you the USB-Host USB2534:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/usb/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/usb/01x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/usb/01x03.jpg)

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 26, 2020, 07:02:27 pm
Today the keypad controller TCA8418:

https://www.richis-lab.de/TCA8418.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/TCA8418.htm)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/tca8418/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/tca8418/01x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/tca8418/01x03.jpg)

Very small structures and not very good to take pictures of because of the polyimid-layer.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/tca8418/01x05.jpg)

The structures beside the keypad bondpads seem to represent the esd protection. Quite a lot of area...
The right block contains the logic and the left block probably contains the clock generation, power on reset circuit and the I2C-interface.

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: ratatax on July 26, 2020, 07:19:14 pm
Looking at the usb chip die seems to show how complicated USB is - most of the layout doesn't repeat itself, like a lot of hardcoded logic to handle the protocol
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 26, 2020, 07:23:34 pm
Looking at the usb chip die seems to show how complicated USB is - most of the layout doesn't repeat itself, like a lot of hardcoded logic to handle the protocol

But not every part is for managing the usb, the USB2534 contains also a 8051 controller.  :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: T3sl4co1l on July 26, 2020, 08:56:23 pm
Huh, wonder why it takes so much logic to scan some pins.  Also a bit surprising they didn't use diodes into a common ESD structure, I've seen that advertised on a few chips before.  Maybe the die is still small enough not to matter.  It's only 2kV HBM so it's not very robust for all the area they did spend on it.  Also interesting that all pins are individually zenered (or dioded to a common zener rail, but we can see from the die that that's probably not the case), i.e. the voltage limits don't depend on VCC or whatever, it's -0.5 to 4.6V across the board.

Ah, so it's not just scanning, there's a FIFO too; seems it implements quite a lot of keyboard functionality that, in the case of the IBM PC for example, was entirely up to the BIOS to perform.  Doesn't look like there's RAM or ROM to control state, so it's either a very compact MCU with ROM scattered around somehow (or hard wired in the sea-of-gates?) or actually all synthesized logic.

Not sure why the I2C side looks different.  Is that mesh pattern just top metallization, or is it transistors/interconnects?  Almost makes it look like there could be some fat transistors in there, but I don't see any reason why this should have large switching capacity or an LDO or something in it.  (Well, I guess the LDO is possible -- maybe the core logic is 1.2V or something?  Heh, it does run 1.65-3.6V, a fairly wide range; not unheard-of for logic gates, but also possible this way.)  Very low power, fractional mA at worst, a fine-pitch design in any case.

Tim
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 27, 2020, 05:06:06 am
Also a bit surprising they didn't use diodes into a common ESD structure, I've seen that advertised on a few chips before.  Maybe the die is still small enough not to matter.

I assume they wanted a chip which doesn´t need a lot of external components...


Ah, so it's not just scanning, there's a FIFO too; seems it implements quite a lot of keyboard functionality that, in the case of the IBM PC for example, was entirely up to the BIOS to perform.

Probably it should work as a "simple" (in terms of the user) and easy connection between a keypad and a controller.


Not sure why the I2C side looks different.  Is that mesh pattern just top metallization, or is it transistors/interconnects?  Almost makes it look like there could be some fat transistors in there, but I don't see any reason why this should have large switching capacity or an LDO or something in it.  (Well, I guess the LDO is possible -- maybe the core logic is 1.2V or something?  Heh, it does run 1.65-3.6V, a fairly wide range; not unheard-of for logic gates, but also possible this way.)  Very low power, fractional mA at worst, a fine-pitch design in any case.

I don´t see transistors on the left side of the die but perhaps they are still there.
There should also be some clock generator, output stage for I2C and undervoltage detection. Some housekeeping...

Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: T3sl4co1l on July 27, 2020, 05:14:57 pm
Had some other thoughts -- the sea-of-gates approach seems wasteful for a one-off.  But I wonder if it's not, if it's designed as a I2C interface ASIC and they use the same 20-GPIO format across many parts?  Saves on masks.  That maybe explains the pins taking up so much space, as they're left general-purpose for any ASIC design.  Maybe if you look at other parts in the same I2C interface family, same or lower pin count, you'll find exactly this? :-//

Tim
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 27, 2020, 09:18:57 pm
Had some other thoughts -- the sea-of-gates approach seems wasteful for a one-off.  But I wonder if it's not, if it's designed as a I2C interface ASIC and they use the same 20-GPIO format across many parts?  Saves on masks.  That maybe explains the pins taking up so much space, as they're left general-purpose for any ASIC design.  Maybe if you look at other parts in the same I2C interface family, same or lower pin count, you'll find exactly this? :-//

Tim


I´m not sure about that... Isn´t a gatearray a quick solution to solve problems. There might be a more efficient way to integrate the logic but probably engineering time costs more than the silicon area if you built a special chip.  :-//

In mouse sensors (https://www.richis-lab.de/mouse.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/mouse.htm)) you often see integrated gatearrays:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/mouse/l09.jpg)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on July 31, 2020, 08:30:32 pm
...
https://richis-lab.de/wafer.htm (https://richis-lab.de/wafer.htm)
...

I have added a complete D220 to the wafer pictures:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/15.jpg)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on August 04, 2020, 09:48:11 pm
Wanna see the internal of an optocoupler? I have a H11L1 for you:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x03.jpg)

The LED is placed above the receiver on a bent part of the lead frame.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x04.jpg)

If you just break out the receiver you can look onto the square routing the light and containing silicone.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x05.jpg)

In the path of light there is also some glass (0,17mm).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x06.jpg)

The LED is 0,3mm*0,3mm and owns a quite big metal contact.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x09.jpg)

The H11L1 uses a optical diode, not an optical transistor. (Nice light symbol.  :-+)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/opto/01x10.jpg)

Silcon art, yeah!  ;D


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/Opto01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/Opto01.htm)

Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on August 09, 2020, 06:17:23 pm
For the Apple fanboys I have a 344-0022, the IOU (Input/Output-Interface).
With the MMU and a PAL the IOU manages the memory and the input/output adressing.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/01x01.jpg)

The packages tells us that the 344-0022 was produced by AMI in 1987 and that it was designed in 1982.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/01x02.jpg)

The die is 3,48mm x 3,25mm. The smallest structures are roughly 6µm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/01x03.jpg)

On the die you can see five masks. The "R5" for every mask could be a hint for a fifth revision. Perhaps...
The S stands for Synertek. I assume Apple designed the features of the ASIC, Synertek designed the chip itself and AMI produced the ASIC.
The "Apple-copyright" on the packages (1982) doesn´t correspond to the "Apple-copyright" on the die (1981).

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on August 15, 2020, 09:16:11 pm

Today I have the bulgarian clone of the 344-0022 for you, a CM632:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/02x01.jpg)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/02x02.jpg)

The die of the CM632 is quite simliar to the 344-0022 but not exactly the same.


https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez02.htm)


 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on August 30, 2020, 04:52:30 pm

Today I have the second Apple-2-ASIC for you, the 344-0011:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/02x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/02x02.jpg)

The polyimid finish is quite persistent but:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/02x03.jpg)

WB? Probably the developer...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/apple/02x04.jpg)

It seems there is one mask more than in the 344-0022...  :-//


https://www.richis-lab.de/apple.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/apple.htm)


 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on August 31, 2020, 04:58:18 pm

And here the 344-0011 clone built by Mikroelektronika Botevgrad, the CM631:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/03x01.jpg)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/03x03.jpg)

I found an interesting die coating. It was a sticky stuff resistant against high temperatures but I was able to rub it off the die. Some isopropyl was a help but I assume it wouldn´t have been neccesary.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/03x04.jpg)

As the CM632 the CM631 is quite similar to the apple original but it´s not exactly the same.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/03x06a.jpg)

...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/03x08a.jpg)

Test structures!  :)


https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez03.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez03.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: brabus on September 01, 2020, 12:47:06 pm
Richi,

Let me express my gratitude and congratulation for the job you are doing!

I guess you can be a very interesting guest in an episode of the Amp Hour podcast!  :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 01, 2020, 03:28:09 pm
Thank you very much!  :)

You probably don't want to hear me speaking english.  ;D
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 02, 2020, 10:10:53 pm
I have another 2"-wafer for your:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x04.jpg)

Four test structures to check the process quality.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x05.jpg)

Aha, a A210-audio-amplifier!  :-+ ...I wouldn´t say HIFI...  ;)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x09.jpg)

The metal layer is missing like on the D220-wafer. You can´t check the whole circuit but you can see a lot more of the active devices.  :-+


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x10.jpg)

 :o It look´s like they used two test structures that where designed for smaller dies and combined them on one die of this wafer. Now the frame extends to the milling area.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x13.jpg)

That is how the A210 looks like with it´s suit on.  8)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x19.jpg)
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x14a.jpg)

Sorry, I damaged the die...  ::)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x15.jpg)

Revision 07... They had a lot of homework to do.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x16.jpg)

And later they added mask revisions.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x14.jpg)

Most parts can be found on the schematic. But they added two small emitter resistors and...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x20.jpg)

There is a testpad for checking the overtemperature shutoff. So they didn´t have to check the amp at high temperatures.
And there is the possibility to change the connection leading to a different resistance of R7 leading to a different overtemperature limit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x17a.jpg)

A nice big output stage transistor.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x18a.jpg)

These lateral PNP-transistors are quite bad. You need a lot of die area to get good enough specifications.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x21a.jpg)
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/01x22.jpg)

They added a resistor and one or two diodes to the bias circuit of the output stage... I´m not sure why...  :-//


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer02.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: T3sl4co1l on September 03, 2020, 09:29:43 am
Good old fashioned quasi-complementary... yeah, that would be a pain in the days of lateral PNP. :)

Tim
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 03, 2020, 07:54:10 pm

A little bit more modern, the TDA7396:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/01x02.jpg)

The die is 4,71mm x 3,79mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/01x03.jpg)

I don´t like these polyimid coatings, they need very high temperatures to deteriorate...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/01x04.jpg)

...often the metal layer is damaged while heating it to the higher temperatures.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/01x05.jpg)

But I managed to get a good picture.
The TDA7396 uses two metal layers. The circuit is quite dense.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/01x09.jpg)

The H-bridge transistors can be identified easily.  :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 04, 2020, 09:49:41 pm
Today I have the Mikroelektronika Botevgrad CM630, a 6502-clone:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/04x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/04x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/04x05.jpg)

I can identify the information in the instruction ROM!  8)

https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez04.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez04.htm)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 12, 2020, 09:07:11 pm

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/05x01.jpg)

The CM633 is a 16R8-PAL built by Mikroelektronika Botevgrad and used in the prawez computers simliar to the Apple 2.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/05x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/05x06.jpg)

The die pictures are not perfect but it´s possible to find the functional blocks.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/05x04.jpg)

The structures are very small but it looks like one can see the status of the antifuses in the array.  :-/O


https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez05.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez05.htm)

Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 13, 2020, 07:07:26 pm

Update: The CM633 is a HAL not a PAL!


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/05x04.jpg)

With more magnification you can see the vias connecting the metal layer with the active area.
(The picture in the last post is updated due to hotlinking.)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/05x07.jpg)

You can see that there is no simple electrical connection. Eacht metal line is equipped with a pull-up (red). Each control line (green) forms a transistor between a via and a ground line.

 :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on September 26, 2020, 06:58:39 pm
Let´s take a look into an old injection interface:

(https://richis-lab.de/images/ecu/01x01.jpg)

(https://richis-lab.de/images/ecu/01x04.jpg)

https://richis-lab.de/ECU01.htm (https://richis-lab.de/ECU01.htm)

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 02, 2020, 09:22:40 pm
The 0127 is a strange injection interface. I don´t know very much about this asic.  :-//

(https://richis-lab.de/images/ecu/02x01.jpg)

(https://richis-lab.de/images/ecu/02x03.jpg)


https://richis-lab.de/ECU02.htm (https://richis-lab.de/ECU02.htm)

Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 04, 2020, 08:42:02 pm

Let´s look inside an old 2,1W-Sanyo-amplifier:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/02x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/02x02.jpg)

The heatsink sheet carries the die.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/02x05.jpg)

Between the differential amplifier (pink) and the VAS (green) there is an additional amplifier (dark grey). This amplifier is shifting the signal and unloads the input amplifier.
In the VAS there is an internal and an external feedback path.
An interesting point is the bias generation of the output stage (yellow). The bias is based on the output and causes some current to flow through the lowside Transistor. That causes current through the highside. Nothing special but at high output levels you can switch of the highside completely. That´s good because of the small supply voltages.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/02x03.jpg)

Nothing special, but...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/02x07.jpg)

...the output transistors and the transistor Q11 are built with a perforated emitter! The dark grey emitter is not put in squares but in a grid that contains holes to contact the base area underneath. That´s interesting!


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/02x06.jpg)

Another interesting point: The LA4100 and the LA4101 are specified with lower supply voltages and less output power. But these amplifiers are no selected parts. The bias generator is connected different so that the bias in the LA4102 is less than in the LA4101/LA4100. I assume they had to do this to lower the power dissipation.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 10, 2020, 01:16:48 pm

(https://richis-lab.de/images/ecu/03x01.jpg)

The Interdesign 2438 is used in engine control units as a front end for inductive rotation sensors.


(https://richis-lab.de/images/ecu/03x02.jpg)

Well, nothing special to see...  :-/O


https://richis-lab.de/ECU03.htm (https://richis-lab.de/ECU03.htm)

Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: T3sl4co1l on October 10, 2020, 09:42:46 pm
They sure needed a lot of resistors in that one!

Tim
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 12, 2020, 08:34:58 pm
They sure needed a lot of resistors in that one!

That´s for sure!  :-+



Today I have a CM8116 for you. It´s a 16kBit-RAM manufactured by Mikroelektronika Botevgrad:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/06x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/06x03.jpg)

They needed 5,7mm x 3,1mm for the 16384 Bits.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/prawez/06x05.jpg)

But what´s that? It´s an ITT 4116!
A nice elephant!  ;D


Some more pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez06.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/prawez06.htm)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 16, 2020, 05:18:40 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/dolby/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/dolby/01x02.jpg)

HA12045 a Dolby B noise reduction chip.  :-/O

https://www.richis-lab.de/HA12045.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/HA12045.htm)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 21, 2020, 05:48:52 pm
Today I have a part of a wafer for you:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/02x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/02x03.jpg)

It contains the A3520, a SECAM-decoder similar to the TDA3520.


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer03.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer03.htm)

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 31, 2020, 04:27:44 am

I just wanted to point out that I have built a calender presenting some of the best pictures of 2020:

https://www.meinbildkalender.de/richis-lab (https://www.meinbildkalender.de/richis-lab)

If you are interested...  :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on October 31, 2020, 12:24:54 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/temp/dunno.jpg)

Does anyone of you know which manufacturer hides behind this logo? It´s on an analog digital converter...  :-//
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 07, 2020, 08:37:57 pm
One more audio amplifier:

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/03x01.jpg)

LM380, single supply 2,5W @8 \$\Omega\$


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/03x02.jpg)

The input is built so you can use a input signal with ground reference without a coupling capacitor. Absolut maximum ratings ist +/-0,5V at the input. I assume that degrades the signal a little bit. With every negative mV you get more leackage current over the substrate.
In the input there is a pi-type differential amplifier. One leg is used for negative feedback.
The VAS (green) is also the predriver.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/03x03.jpg)

There is some additional potting on the die. Getting rid of this potting was not easy.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/03x05.jpg)

It took a lot of heat to get to the silicon.  :-\
1,6mm x 1,4mm


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/03x06.jpg)

The output amplifier is built with darlington transistors.
The datasheet states an overcurrent protection. You can´t see a shunt measurement over the emitter resistors. It seems like the two circuits on the left are doing the overcurrent protection. But how does the circuit detect the overcurrent? Thats no MOSFET output stage in which you could built a current mirror current measurement.  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/03x07.jpg)

The first transistor of the input also is built with a Darlington configuration 1a/1b and 2a/2b.


https://www.richis-lab.de/audioamp03.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/audioamp03.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 12, 2020, 09:48:21 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audio/01x01.jpg)

SAB3012 - TV remote receiver and memory


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audio/01x03.jpg)

Most of the area is occupied by the logic. I assume the three stripes are the memory for the four "analogue" outputs. In fact the outputs are digital but with a RC-network generate a analogue signal.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audio/01x08.jpg)

Although the crossing of the lines looks uniform it has to represent transistors and connections...  :-//


https://www.richis-lab.de/SAB3012.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/SAB3012.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 14, 2020, 12:20:22 pm
Let´s take a look into an old hall-switch:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/01x01.jpg)

The B461 was built by HFO in 1983.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/01x03.jpg)

They used some gel potting to protect the die.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/01x04.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/01x08.jpg)

The hall-effect occurs under the metal square in the silicon. The metal square probably acts as a shield against electrical fields.


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/hall01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/hall01.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 23, 2020, 08:45:05 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x01.jpg)

The Bosch 30221 is a sixfold lowside switch used in motor control units.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x02.jpg)

Well that´s not a big heatspreader...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x03.jpg)

But the die is quite big: 7,2mm x 4,3mm. There are a lot of bondwires connecting the die to the heatspreader.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x04.jpg)

You can see the six power stages. There are six bondpads on top of the die controlling the power stages. In the middle of the die there are six times two bondpads connecting the output pin. On the lower edge there are six times two bondpads connecting to ground.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x10.jpg)

Now that´s interesting! There is a cut in the middle of the two bondpads! Perhaps Bosch wanted to use the power stage with less outputs too. I assume by not connecting the bondpad of an unused amplifier a circuit is cut open. Perhaps that was neccessary because of diagnostics...  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x08.jpg)

You can spot the power transistor (yellow), the overcurrent protection (red) using a part of the metal layer as a shunt, the driver (green) and a big structure (blue/purple) containing zener diodes for clamping.
Interesting is the white part. The potential between the blue and the purple part is used to control the white part.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x11.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/ecu/04x09.jpg)

It looks like the white transistors are pulling the base of the power transistor hard low while the zener diodes are clamping. I assume with this circuit the blocking voltage of the power transistor is higher while clamping. The green part looks like a highside driver. Without a push-pull driver leackage current through the collector-base-junction can turn the transistor on. Pulling the base low drains the leackage current and gives you some more volts of blocking voltage.  :-+


https://www.richis-lab.de/ECU04.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/ECU04.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: T3sl4co1l on November 23, 2020, 09:04:57 pm
Yeah, clamped B-E gives you the higher Vcbo versus Vceo voltage rating.

That pullup must be pretty beefy then. Not actually Darlington?

I find the layout unusual, or I'm rather rusty on reading ICs; hard to tell what's collector and emitter.  And hard to see the diffusions under the metal layer; they're only barely visible in the tilted (perspective? and look at that metal thickness, cool) view.

Tim
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: RoGeorge on November 23, 2020, 09:22:24 pm
Another great one, thank you!
 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 23, 2020, 09:31:57 pm
That pullup must be pretty beefy then. Not actually Darlington?

No, i didn´t find a darlington.


I find the layout unusual, or I'm rather rusty on reading ICs; hard to tell what's collector and emitter.  And hard to see the diffusions under the metal layer; they're only barely visible in the tilted (perspective? and look at that metal thickness, cool) view.

You are right. It took me some time but now I´m pretty sure about the schematic. In the white block you can see the greenish base area and looking very carefully you can spot a second area in the base area under the ground metal. That has to be the emitter. The base of the power transistor connects to the purpel area in which the greenish base area is placed. That has to be the collector.  :-/O :-+ :)


Another great one, thank you!
 :popcorn:

Thanks!  :)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: magic on November 23, 2020, 10:22:23 pm
How are those clamping diodes supposed to work? They look like normal transistors with open circuit bases.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 23, 2020, 10:35:02 pm
How are those clamping diodes supposed to work? They look like normal transistors with open circuit bases.

I assume that´s a standard transistor and the "T" connects the base (vertical) with the collector (horizontal). That would leave a base-emitter-junction which gives us a zener Diode with some volts.
Of course I´m not 100% sure about that but that´s the only function that makes sense. It´s a component connected only between the output and ground. It´s too big to be a surge suppressor but you definitly need a clamping circuit in such a lowside switch.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: mawyatt on November 25, 2020, 01:34:07 pm
Here's a Nikon Image Space site where a few older chip images we can show are available. We've done some (not on this site they are too big!) that are ~ 30,000 by 20,000 pixels utilizing special Stack & Stitch techniques and custom designed stepper motor controllers, camera/lens assemblies & equipment. You'll need to download the images to get moderate resolution, most are available in this medium resolution as full resolution is too large for most downloads and takes up too much space on this site.

http://img.gg/taIZ99M (http://img.gg/taIZ99M)

Happy Thanksgiving,

Best,
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 27, 2020, 09:41:50 pm
I have taken some pictures of a Tektronix P6461 differential comparator probe (used in a DAS9200 logic analyzer):


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x03.jpg)

The probe is built on a ceramic substrate.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x05.jpg)

The supply is +/-15V. The green wires adjust the threshold. The differential output is shielded with the positive supply.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x06.jpg)

The input was shorted during production so the comparator is protected against ESD.
The resistors are tuned.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x09.jpg)

R3/R4 are input resistors.
C1/C2 are matching the resistors with the rest of the probe.
R1/R2 are supressing reflections.
With R5/R6 the unit can adjust the threshold.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x11.jpg)

M363A? I wasn´t able to find information about this chip... :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x13.jpg)

The white part is not used. In the rest of the circuit there are some amplifier stages and biasing. The output seems to be an ECL stage.
There are different connection to the positive and the negative supply. It looks like these are options to adjust the bias with a small change of the metal layer.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/diffprobe/01x17.jpg)

The white part is only connected to the supply lines, one input and a not used bondpad.
I assume the chip had an option to control the threshold as long as the ground potential is the same in both circuits, the DUT and the meassurement unit.
With the differential threshold adjustment in the P6461 the ground potential doesn´t have to be the same.


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/diffprobe.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/diffprobe.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Renate on November 29, 2020, 12:04:18 am
The input was shorted during production so the comparator is protected against ESD.
Mmm, just wondering: Isn't more likely that it's shorted so that they could get the CMRR dead on when they trimmed the resistors?
And then they could trim (i.e. chop) the short immediately after they were done.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on November 29, 2020, 05:01:06 am
The input was shorted during production so the comparator is protected against ESD.
Mmm, just wondering: Isn't more likely that it's shorted so that they could get the CMRR dead on when they trimmed the resistors?
And then they could trim (i.e. chop) the short immediately after they were done.

Thanks for the hint! Of course the short gives also clean and CM-free 0V during tuning.  :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on December 10, 2020, 05:18:11 am
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x01.jpg)

The TL7705A, a supply voltage supervisor.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x03.jpg)
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x07.jpg)

The die is 1,8mm x 1,8mm. The structures are quite big, so we can take a closer look.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x08.jpg)

At the sense input there are four resistors that can devide the input voltage to give you one of the voltage levels:
TL7702A: 0Ω
TL7705A: 7.8kΩ
TL7709A: 19.7kΩ
TL7712A: 32.7kΩ
TL7715A: 43.4 kΩ


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x09.jpg)

With the lower testpads connected to the lower resistor of the voltage divider you can adjust the voltage threshold.
Interesting point: The TL7702A has no resistor devider and with that it can´t be adjusted. You see that looking at the accuracy:
TL7702A: +/-2,0%
TL7705A: +/-1,1%
TL7709A: +/-1,3%
TL7712A: +/-1,9%
TL7715A: +/-2,2%

These are no metal fuses. They look like zener fuses (antifuses).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x10.jpg)

The small transistors in the middle of this picture act as schmitt trigger and oring.
The green path is connected to an external capacitor for adjusting the hysteresis. The big transistor is no thyristor, like shown in the datasheet, it´s a pnp transistor. Of course you don´t want to integrate a thyristor in such a standard process. Probably the rest of the circuit makes him acting like a thyristor.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x11.jpg)

The output stage is not a pnp/npn stage like shown in the datasheet but a sziklay pnp-npn / npn stage.
The big PNP transistor controls both, highside and lowside and it seems like doing some latching. It gives correct reset signals down to 2V.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/supply/01x12.jpg)

Here you can see the Brokaw bandgap reference.
There are two transistors (on the right side), one five times bigger than the other. The round structures look like PNP transistors but refering to the circuit and the colours they have to be NPN transistors.
The transistors are connected to two resistors (blue and dark blue) as usual in bandgap references. The lower resistor can be tuned with a small parallel resistance switched with the white testpads. At the purpel testpad you can meassure the basic reference voltage.
The big pnp transistor generates and supplies the pink reference voltage out of the basic reference voltage.
The other big transistor seems to be a startup circuit. It´s seems to be a kind of a jfet.


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/TL7705.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/TL7705.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on December 18, 2020, 09:08:20 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x01.jpg)

The Bridgetek BT815 Touch-Display-Controller is quite a intelligent part.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x05.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x03.jpg)

The die is 4,1mm x 3,7mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x04.jpg)

Under normal light the metal layer looks quite strange. That is no artefact, there is really a kind of an edge.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x06.jpg)

I assume that are the analogue parts.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x07.jpg)

Looks like first design built 2017.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/BT815/01x08.jpg)

Hey, real big fuses!  ;D
But what is that big thing in the window under the second fuse? Looks like something optoelectric...  :-// :-// :-//


https://www.richis-lab.de/BT815.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/BT815.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on December 31, 2020, 06:03:53 am
Let´s take a look into an old hall-switch:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/01x01.jpg)

The B461 was built by HFO in 1983.

...



I have added a schematic to the B461 documentation:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/01x09.jpg)

The voltage redulator is quite complex.
The grey circuit generates a "constant" current out of the three emitter of T15. R20 (yellow) makes the start-up possible. After that T15 supplies current to its own "voltage reference" T17/T18. T16 is the current sink that is multiplied by T15.
The grey circuit supplies current to the voltage regulator T19. The pin 3 makes is possible to activate the pink line which can sink the current normaly fed to T19. In this case the B461 is off.
T19/R21/T20/T21 (orange) does a kind of a voltage regulation. Since Vbe of T20/T21 drifts a lot with temperature the current mirror T22/T23 does some compensation by sinking some of the base current of T20/T21.
The green path generates a voltages that varies with temperature in a way that the connected current sinks draw a constant current (red/blue). T26/R26 is a reference for the other two current sinks. If it draws more current due to a higher temperature the supply current through T25 is reduced and the current through the current sinks stays constant.

The dark green differential amplifier is connected to the hall element and evaluates the hall voltage. The collector resistors determine the threshold of the hall switch.
The dark green differential amplifier has a differential input and a differential output. Since commen mode noise is not a big problem its current sink is not connected to the special "constant current voltage supply".

The blue differential amplifier has a single output. I assume because of this single output the blue amplifier needed the special supply for its current sink.
In the collector path you can find two current mirrors. One mirror equals the currents in the two legs and one mirror copies the current of the right leg. This current is the output of the whole stage.

The cyan part contains two hysteresis. With help of the transistor T4 the output of the blue amplifier affects the amplification factor of the dark green amplifier so we get a clean threshold.
T12/T13 is a schmitt trigger which generates a clean digital output.

 :-/O

https://www.richis-lab.de/hall01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/hall01.htm)

 :)
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on January 09, 2021, 09:50:39 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x01.jpg)

U821D, a pMOS calculator controller built by Funkwerk Erfurt (FWE), later renamed to Mikroelektronik Karl Marx (MME).
The U821D is similar to the U820D but consumes a little less current. The figures of the display were also optimized so the average current consumption of the display is reduced.
The U821D can drive more current to the LED segments than the U820D.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x02.jpg)

Quite a big die: 5,8mm x 5,8mm


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x03.jpg)

Test structures: pMOS with field oxide on the left, pMOS with gate oxide on the right (you can see the window in the field oxide under the gate metal).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x10.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x15.jpg)

The input protection uses the field-oxide-MOSFET which conducts only at problematic high (low) voltages at the bondpad.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x06.jpg)

LED output with a big transistor and a push-pull-driver.
(5mA typ., 7mA max.)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x05.jpg)

The digit driver is a little smaller and is able to conduct 1,5mA.
The driver is a little more complex.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x19.jpg)

Let´s take a closer look at the instruction ROM. It´s a Mask-ROM.
On the right side there is the adress column with 2*6 differential adress lines. The white MOSFETs conduct the red Vss into almost every adress line of the ROM. Only one line (the selected one, blue) is LOW.
In the ROM there are a lot of transistors (black). In the adress line with the low potential (blue) the transistors are active (yellow) and are conducting the Vss potential into the corresponding control lines. Programming of the ROM is done by placing the MOSFETs (the gate oxide) wherever you want a control line to be active.
The green transistor on the right side is a pull-up-transistor.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x20.jpg)

Dunkelwind (aka bITmASTER) has built a U82xD-emulator with the help of my pictures: https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/U821Emu.html (https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/U821Emu.html)


More pictures here:
https://www.richis-lab.de/calc01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/calc01.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on January 11, 2021, 03:36:14 pm
...
U821D
...
https://www.richis-lab.de/calc01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/calc01.htm)

I have uploaded a new (complete) version of the analysis png:

https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x21_large.png (https://www.richis-lab.de/images/calc/01x21_large.png)
(120MB)

 :-/O :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on January 17, 2021, 12:47:31 pm
I have a 4"-wafer for you:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x01.jpg)

The wafer contains the U3230, a circuit for an ISDN-like telephone system developed in the GDR.

The wafer has one flattening at the bottom and one on the left side which stands for a p-doped substrate with a (100)-crystal-orientation. The D220 wafer (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer01.htm)) and the A210 wafer (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer02.htm)) have only one flattening at the bottom which stands for p-doped (111)-silicon. On (111)-silicon the oxide growth rate is higher leading to a faster production. But the surface also gathers more impurities. (100)-silicon has more clean surfaces and is better for MOS-circuits like the U3230.

The U3230 is quite big (5,3mm*5,3mm) so you loose a lot of area at the edges of the wafer.

There are some test structures arranged in a vertical line. That´s interesting. Normaly the test structures are distributed over the whole area so you can detect if there is a non-uniformity in the production.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x03.jpg)

Also interesting is the free area on the bottom of the wafer. They lost quite a lot of silicon because of this marking area (?).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x04.jpg)

Here you can see how the different levels end up at the edge of the wafer.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x05.jpg)

The test area contains quite a lot and quite big test structures.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x20.jpg)

A lot of the testpads have been contacted after production.
In the not contacted testpads you can spot numbers.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x06.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x07.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x08.jpg)

The MT215 seems to be the name of the test area.
There are a lot of structures to check the alignment of the masks and the reproduction quality.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x09.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x21.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x22.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x10.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x11.jpg)

There are some "normal" teststructures but also some very special structures.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x19.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x16.jpg)

You also can find some teststructures between the dies.
These grid like connections of the red squares look quite strange. I don´t think that´s possible but to me that looks like a light emitting diode.  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x12.jpg)

The U3230 is quite big. I don´t know very much about this circuit...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/wafer/03x13.jpg)

On the die there are a lot of small testpads and most of them have small circuits nearby. I assume these circuits act like buffers...  :-/O


Some more pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer04.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/wafer04.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on January 25, 2021, 09:37:31 pm
For you information: I have started a new topic for logic ICs:

https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/logic-ics-die-pictures/new/#new (https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/logic-ics-die-pictures/new/#new)

 :popcorn:
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: lpc32 on January 26, 2021, 12:51:08 am
Nice stuff!

What do you take the photos with?

Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on January 26, 2021, 04:29:43 am
I have already written some words about the process:
https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/decapping-and-chip-documentation-howto/msg2663778/#msg2663778 (https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/decapping-and-chip-documentation-howto/msg2663778/#msg2663778)

 :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on February 01, 2021, 10:15:49 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x02.jpg)

Burr-Brown VFC110, a voltage to frequency converter.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x03.jpg)

The edge length is 3,1mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x04.jpg)

CIC01498, a typical Burr-Brown naming.
And some masks revisions.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x17.jpg)

It looks like the eight squares were used to mark the tuning process...  :-/O


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x09.jpg)

At some bondpads there are interesting small squares. Probably protection...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x06.jpg)

I´m not 100% sure but most functional blocks are easy to spot. Quite a lot of bias circuits.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x07.jpg)

One metal layer and a lot of supply potentials.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x08.jpg)

Now that are a lot of current sinks.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x24.jpg)

And a lot of the current sinks can be switched off with the enable pin.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x11.jpg)

For the bias circuit BB integrated a bandgap reference.
There is also an unused buried zener. Interesting... Perhaps they thought about using the zener for the bias circuit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x10.jpg)

The reference voltage circuit.
At the top of the area is the output with overcurrent protection.
We have cross coupled transistor quads and dummy resistors.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x14.jpg)

The reference voltage output uses a sense line to compensate for the voltage drop.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x12.jpg)

And here is the buried zener.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x05.jpg)

The input resistor is extensively tuned.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x15.jpg)

The first opamp, the integrator.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x18.jpg)

The opamp has diodes at the inputs. They prevent saturation and protect the input stage which is connected to the I_in pin.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x16.jpg)

The output is connected to the V_out pin and because of that it contains a "power transistor" and an overcurrent protection like in the reference circuit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x19.jpg)

The second opamp is quite symmetrical.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x21.jpg)

The one-shot-circuit which controls the pulse width.
Below the circuit there is the internal Cos-capacitor. You can connect an additional external capacitor.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/vfc/01x23.jpg)

The output transistor is quite interesting. Around the active area there is an additional isolation frame ("iso") connected to GNDd. I assume the fast switching otherwise would causes a current flowing through the substrate to -Vs at the lower edge which could cause dirstubances in the other circuits.


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/vfc01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/vfc01.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on February 03, 2021, 10:44:11 pm
Now that´s interesting:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x01.jpg)

KA610, a PCM30 repeater built in the GDR.
It is based on a HFO IA60 Master Slice, a generic die with a lot of transistors and resistors where you just have to develop the metal layer.
A more modern version of this concept can be seen in the OPA676: https://www.richis-lab.de/Opamp13.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/Opamp13.htm)
The die is 2,6mm x 3,0mm. Since there was a big dot on the die it probably was rejected.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x02.jpg)

KA601 and a telephone...  :)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x05.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x06.jpg)

vertical npn transistor
With the four collector contacts you can route signals across a metal line. There is just one metal layer to connect all the necessary components.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x15.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x11.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x12.jpg)

npn power transistor


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x07.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x08.jpg)

lateral pnp transistor
Here you can use the base contacts to wire a signal across a metal line.
The two collector contacts are isolated so you can´t use them for wiring signals but you can easily build a current mirror.  :-+


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x10.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x09.jpg)

vertical substrate pnp transistor
Since the active areas are bigger and the distances are smaller than in the lateral pnp transistor the vertical pnp transistor provides a higher ft and more current amplification. But you have to accept the collector is connected to the substrate.
It´s interesting there is an additional p-doped area around the top edge. I assume that is to reduce collector resistance. If you put the heavily p-doped isolation area near the transistor you get quite a low breakdown voltage.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x16.jpg)

resistors


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x18.jpg)

The resistor area is connected to a high potential to isolate the resistors against each other.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x13.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/KA601/01x14.jpg)

And a pinch resistor.
Here a n-doped layer narrows the p-doped resistor to get more resistance.
Interesting point: Under the left contact there is an area to connect the p-doped resistor and an area to connect to the n-doped area and the pinch layer.


https://www.richis-lab.de/KA601.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/KA601.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: brabus on February 04, 2021, 01:14:52 pm
Impressive photos and impressive analysis!

Keep the good stuff coming! I always follow this thread with great interest.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on February 04, 2021, 02:24:02 pm
Thanks for the positive feedback!
It´s always nice to hear that there are interested people reading my stuff.  :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on February 10, 2021, 09:46:48 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x01.jpg)

Philips TDA1516, a 2x12W audio amplifier ideal for car applications (back in the days...  ;D).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x02.jpg)

The TDA1516 contains an interesting soft start circuit. There are two "input amplifiers". One is the real input amplifier which is switched on later and one does some precharging of the output amplifier and the coupling capacitors (if you need them). The precharge amplifier slowly ramps up the circuit to 0,5*Vp so you don´t get the switching "plop".

The TDA1516 has two pins supplying the driver circuit of the output stage. You can connect Vp to this pins. An alternative are bootstrapping capacitors to give the output a higher voltage range. With bootstraping you get the 24W otherwise only 22W.
Interesting fact: With bootstrapping you have to connect a 100k-resistor to pin 12. That gives you a little higher auxiliary voltage. Since the voltage amplifier probably inverts the signal the output is precharged to a somewhat lower voltage. That makes sense since the integrated bootstrap diode gives you a lower quiescent output voltage.

There is also a disconnect switch in the bootstrap circuit. Perhaps that was necessary to get the low quiescent current of 100µA.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x05.jpg)

There is something like a polyimid coating on the die.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x08.jpg)

The die is 3,1mm x 2,5mm.
You can see the power stage on the right and the rest of the circuit on the left.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x07.jpg)

The internal name of the design seems to be N4712B.
And Philips used two metal layers.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x09.jpg)

You can easily spot the lowside transistor (blue) and the highside transistor (red).
The lowside driver is a npn and therefore is quite small (purple).
The highside driver is a pnp and therefore is bigger (yellow).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x10.jpg)

Here you see the output stage transistors and their contacts to the metal layer.
The bootstrap potential takes quite an interesting way through the output stage.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x15.jpg)

pnp highside driver
I assume the two round transistors in the upper left corner of the metal rectangle are the bootstrap diode.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x11.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x12.jpg)

Hey, 10 base resistors for every transistor!  :-+


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/04x13.jpg)

Input stage seems to be quite symmetrical but too much to read.  ;)


https://www.richis-lab.de/audioamp04.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/audioamp04.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on February 24, 2021, 08:44:53 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x01.jpg)

Siemens S556, the controller of the worldwide first IR remote control used in a Grundig TV.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x02.jpg)

Minimum structure size seems to be around 8µm. Because of that the die is quite big: 4,6mm x 2,9mm
There is no datasheet but a press handout in which you can read that the S556 is built with PMOSFETs and depletion loads.
Two bondpads are not connected. The S556 was sold in a DIL16 and a DIL18 package which were able to read 8x4 keypad or a 6x4 keypad.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x04.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x03.jpg)

SVD-556 built by Siemens.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x06.jpg)

Five masks:
a: p-doped areas in the n-doped substrate
b: p-doping for depletion transistors between two p-doped areas
d: via for connecting the metal layer with the lower areas
e: metal layer (forms the gate electrodes over the gap between the p-doped areas)
f: windows in the passivation layer to connect the bondpads
In my view...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x05.jpg)

Now that´s an interesting structure under the bondpad... Perhaps some protection.
After a series resistor there is something like another protection or a pull-up-structure...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/S556/01x08.jpg)

Test structure, image quality is not ideal.  :-\


https://www.richis-lab.de/S556.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/S556.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on March 08, 2021, 04:28:29 am
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x01.jpg)

Today I have something special for you: The U1001 is a NF-Filter for telephone systems developed in the GDR. It contains a HPF and a LPF for the transceiver and a LPF for the receiver. Interesting is the working principle of these filter stages. The U1001 uses switched capacitor filters which need less area than conventional filter stages and are tighter tolerated.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x14.jpg)

A nice big die: 5,9mm x 3,4mm
You can identify every functional block.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x04.jpg)

A telephone!  :-+


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x19.jpg)

Input protection diodes...
The die was glued on a ceramic plate for many years. Because of that the structures are damaged a little.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x23.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x22.jpg)

SC-Filters need classical RC-Prefilters to prevent aliasing.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x27.jpg)

There are two polysilicon layers. That´s good for the capacitors. The red polysilicon layer in the middle is one plate of the capacitor while the green polysilicon layer and the metal layer are forming two plates above and under the red layer which gives you more capacitance.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x24.jpg)

Yeah the SC-Filter!  8)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x28.jpg)

Five opamps for the SC-Filter and one working as input buffer.
Above the opamps there are the capacitor switches.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x21.jpg)

Interesting: The SC-Filter doesn´t use the analog ground but gets a copy of the analog ground generated with the power supply.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x29.jpg)

The capacitors are built with a lot of small capacitors connected with small wires.
Why not one plane? Perhaps the wires add some damping so you don´t get ringing? Some capacitors are quite long...  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x26.jpg)

Some red lines are shielded with the green layer.
Some capacitors are smaller...  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x17.jpg)

The different planes set up 20 capacitors.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x31.jpg)

And a smoothing filter at the output to get rid of the switching noise.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x18.jpg)

Output opamp and input opamp.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x32.jpg)

The SC-HPF uses smaller capacitor structures. I don´t know why. All in all the filters are quite similar.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x36.jpg)

A defect!  :o
Here you can see the gate oxide sqare that increases the capacitance of the capacitors.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x38.jpg)

A lot of capacitors...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x39.jpg)

They did some tuning with fuses.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x42.jpg)

The second SC-LPF.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x45.jpg)

The two output opamps to get a differential signal. Back in the days they still had transducers in the system.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/01x46.jpg)

The two feedback resistors are quite interesting. Their ratio has to be constant so you don´t get a dc offset. The transducers wouldn´t like that.


A lot more pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/phone01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone01.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on March 13, 2021, 04:43:46 am
Let´s take a look into a GMR tooth sensor module:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x01.jpg)

Sensitec GLM712
(picture taken from the datasheet)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x07.jpg)

The GLM712 contains two wheatstone bridges
(picture taken from the datasheet).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x03.jpg)

I own a manufacturing board where the sensor is still open. Here you see two sensors.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x04.jpg)

The metal seems to form the magnetic field. There is no magnet in there. The magnet would probably come in the next steps of the production.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x06.jpg)

The die is 2,17mm x 0,67mm.
Besides the 712 you can buy sensors for different tooth pitches.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x08.jpg)

The big parts are the GMR sensors. The wiring is interesting...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/02x09.jpg)

I assume the long closely wired connections compensate some trouble induced by the changing magnet field.


https://www.richis-lab.de/hall02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/hall02.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Renate on March 13, 2021, 12:31:51 pm
I had never heard of GMR - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_magnetoresistance
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on March 13, 2021, 12:55:34 pm
I had never heard of GMR - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_magnetoresistance (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_magnetoresistance)

Really? That was one milestone that enhanced the disk space of harddrives because the GMR can sense very small magnetic fields quite well.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hdd/a06.jpg)

Here you see an old inductive head (WD Caviar 22500 https://www.richis-lab.de/HDD_WD_Caviar_22500.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/HDD_WD_Caviar_22500.htm)).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hdd/b06.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hdd/b07.jpg)

And here you see a GMR-head with an inductive write coil and a GMR read element behind it. (Samsung SV4003H https://www.richis-lab.de/HDD_Samsung_SV4003H.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/HDD_Samsung_SV4003H.htm))


The actual working principle is quite dizzying. Quantum mechanics...  :-//
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on March 16, 2021, 05:02:01 am
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x01.jpg)

U114, a circuit built by Halbleiterwerk Frankfurt Oder to control an analog quarz alarm-clock.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x02.jpg)

The U114 contains a lot of frequency divider, two power stages for a clock stepper motor and one output stage for the alarm.
The U114 uses a 4,194304MHz quarz. Because of that you need more dividers leading to more current consumption than would be necessary with a 32,768kHz quarz. But it´s more accurate. The datasheet states 50µA without the motor while the U113 (32,768kHz) needs only a tenth of the current.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x03.jpg)

The die is 3,0mm x 1,8mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x05.jpg)

U114, that´s clear.
U4M39?  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x04.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x06.jpg)

some test structures; 7 masks?


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x07.jpg)

Here you can test three MOSFETs.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x08.jpg)

The two push-pull power stages are obvious. In the white area there seems to be driver circuit. The yellow power transistor controls the alarm.
Left and right of the power stages there are some columns with repetitive structures, probably containing the dividers.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x10.jpg)

The power transistor in detail.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/U114/01x11.jpg)

In the lower right corner there is a structure near the quarz contacts which likely contains the oscillator circuit.


https://www.richis-lab.de/U114.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/U114.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: SYJON on March 16, 2021, 09:25:14 am
How about 555?
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on March 16, 2021, 09:27:56 am
How about 555?

These 555?

https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/some-555-timer-dies/msg2870226/#msg2870226 (https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/some-555-timer-dies/msg2870226/#msg2870226)
https://www.richis-lab.de/555.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/555.htm)

 ;D
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: SYJON on March 16, 2021, 09:30:58 am
Exactly! Love that  8) ;D
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Renate on March 16, 2021, 04:21:28 pm
I hope that we'll get some good shots of eInk display panels soon.
Here is a (low quality) preview of a eInk "Carta" 300 DPI display driver chip.
A flex PC comes in from the top, the screen is on the bottom.
Between those two is an IC built on the glass.
This one has some sort of hard reflective cap stuck to it. It doesn't come off with a heat gun. Or a knife.
I have another one that has some sort of white silicone on top of the IC.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on March 23, 2021, 04:07:48 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x03.jpg)

Sensitec builds some interesting current sensors that are based on the GMR effect: CDS4000 and CFS1000 for example.
They use the compensation methode. Compensating the field of the current which you want to measure.
(pictures taken from the datasheet)


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x05.jpg)

Here you see a module apparently similar to the modules used in most of the Sensitec current sensors.
The small die is the GMR sensor, the big die does the signal processing.
The black blocks are magnets that gives you an offset so you can meassure positive and negative currents.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x08.jpg)

The GMR sensor is called ADK769. With this name you find some information, for example the IEEE article "High accuracy, high bandwidth magnetoresistive current sensors for spacecraft power electronics". With the help of the IEEE article we know that the two contact on the right generate the compensation field. Us1 and Us2 is the supply of the wheatstone bridge and Uo1 and Uo2 gives you the voltage proportional to the magnetic field.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x09.jpg)
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x07.jpg)

The upper dark layer conducts the compensation current. The GMR elements are under the barber pole structures.
The barber pole structures are placed directly on the GMR and conduct current quite well. That gives you an angular current flow which modifies the characteristic of the GMR element so you get a linear behaviour and more sensitivity at low fields.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x10.jpg)

Here you see the current path of the compensation current.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x13.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x11.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x12.jpg)

A wheatstone bridge is quite symmetrical and robust against noise and drifts. Nevertheless Sensitec splitted the GMR elements in four parts and mixed them together probably to get it even more robust.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x14.jpg)

On the signal processing die in the upper half there is an analog part and in the lower half is a digital part.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x15.jpg)

Hello Simon!  ;D


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x16.jpg)

There are four unused bondpads and 14 (!) pads each connected to something that looks quite like a fuse.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/hall/03x17.jpg)

On the right side there are the big transistors for the field compensation.
The big structures on the left side could be a voltage regulator for the wheatstone bridge.


More pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/hall03.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/hall03.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on April 01, 2021, 07:39:27 pm
One step forward in the GDR digital telephone system. We have seen the NF-Filter U1001 (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone01.htm)). The next IC in the line is the U1011, a Coder/Decoder which does the digital conversion respectively the analog conversion.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x01.jpg)

The resolution of the DAC and the ADC is 13Bit. These 13Bit are compressed to 8Bit what is enough for a telephone system.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x31.jpg)

The die is 5,4mm x 3,4mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x05.jpg)

Looks like a revision 2...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x14.jpg)

Interesting: There are "normal" testpads and smaller testpads. I assume the smaller ones were used in development.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x09.jpg)

Nice: A Switched-Capacitor-DAC


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x15.jpg)

There are three transistors, one for Ref+, one for Ref- and one vor GND.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x33.jpg)

Above the GND transistor there is a fourth small transistor connecting GND with a big metal stripe. The stripe is connected to the control circuit but most notably to a big area above the GND transistor. In the next pictures we will see that this structure somehow reduces the resistance of the transistor. I assume the additional transistor modifies the body potential.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x16.jpg)

The capacitors are the same as in the U1001.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x17.jpg)

It´s a Split-Switched-Capacitor-ADC. It is split in two halfes. The MSB-DAC contains seven segments, the LSB-DAC contains six segments. The capacitor ratio is 64:32:16:8:4:2:1 then there is a small coupling capacitor and then there is the LSB-DAC with the ratio 32:16:8:4:2:2... ...well it looks like this but I´m not perfectly sure with the ...2:2.
The transistor ratios are similar but there is a change in the ratios where the additional transistor at the GND transistor comes into play.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x18.jpg)

That looks like the output opamp.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x19.jpg)

That seems to be a bias circuit for the output opamp and the comparator of the SAR-ADC. The datasheet describes an automatic offset compensation.  :-/O


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x20.jpg)

It looks like they kept an option to adjust the offset from outside the die.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x21.jpg)

With nearly the same DAC they built a SAR-ADC.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x22.jpg)

Here we have two more switches for the analog signal (because you have to switch positive and negativ potentials).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x24.jpg)

That part has to be the comparator.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x13.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x32.jpg)

Interesting: In the digital part there are some small caps integrated in the substrate. It seems like the long way to the supply bondpad had to be compensated.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x25.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x26.jpg)

The digital part is too complex to analyse every function but this looks like the 13Bit/8Bit conversion.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x29.jpg)

Digital input...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/02x30.jpg)

...and digital output.


Here some more pictures:

https://www.richis-lab.de/phone02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone02.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on April 08, 2021, 12:11:31 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x02.jpg)

Ruhla Kaliber 15-02, a small simple digital watch.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x03.jpg)

Yeah, the battery is leaking a little.  ;D


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x04.jpg)

With the small capacitor at the bottom of the board you can tune the clock.
The quartz is missing.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x05.jpg)

Here we see the contact rubber for the lcd.
They drilled two holes between the lcd and the capacitor cutting some traces. They needed this connection to galvanise the board with gold. That also a cause for the traces leading to the edge of the board.
There are some interesting dendrites at the capacitor. Perhaps because of the electrolyte?


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x06.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x07.jpg)

The LCD...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x09.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x10.jpg)

They potted the controller into the PCB.
After bonding the die they took a black lid on top of the board. The bondwires get bent but it seems that was no problem.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x11.jpg)

The die is coated (2,9mm x 2,8mm).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x12.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x17.jpg)

The service manual states the controller is a KB1004CHL5-4. Probably it´s a КБ1004ХЛ5-4. Russia had a lot of clock controllers have a 1004ХЛ in their name.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x18.jpg)

A lot of the area is occupied by some similar structures, probably the lcd drivers.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x19.jpg)

There are strange structures in the middle of the die. Perhaps that is something like a mask programmed melody generator for the alarm.


https://www.richis-lab.de/clock01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/clock01.htm)


 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on April 12, 2021, 08:05:50 pm
As part of the GDR digital telephone system we have seen the filter circuit U1001 (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone01.htm)) and the PCM-coder/decoder (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone02.htm)). Now here we have the U1500PC050 which controls the signal flow.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x01.jpg)

The die is 5,9mm x 5,9mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x04.jpg)

The U1500PC050 is based on the Zeiss U1500. With the U1500 system you can built an ASIC out of standard cells.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x02.jpg)

Some structures to check the process quality.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x14.jpg)

The U1500PC050 was designed in the "Institut für Nachrichtentechnik".


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x05.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x06.jpg)

The input bondpads are connected to the clamping diodes with a series resistor. The signal is buffered in a push-pull-stage and then reaches the internal circuit.
Around the bondpads there seems to be some kind of additional isolation.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x07.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x08.jpg)

A small push-pull output stage.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x09.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x10.jpg)

There are five bigger output stages. Different to the smaller output stages the highside and the lowside transistor are controlled with two lines. There is probably a tristate mode. That makes sense because there is also an input circuit connected to these output stages.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x11.jpg)

There is an exclusive supply bondpad at the big output stages.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/03x12.jpg)

In the logic block we find the same capacitors as in the U1011 (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone02.htm)).


https://www.richis-lab.de/phone03.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone03.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on April 17, 2021, 07:34:19 pm
Today I have a special Fluke analog switch for you. There was already a thread about it so I placed the pictures there:

https://www.eevblog.com/forum/testgear/replacement-for-fluke-700013-ic-(quad-spst-analog-switch)/msg3551343/#msg3551343 (https://www.eevblog.com/forum/testgear/replacement-for-fluke-700013-ic-(quad-spst-analog-switch)/msg3551343/#msg3551343)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on April 23, 2021, 08:23:15 pm
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x01.jpg)

The NEC µPD7220 is the world´s first graphic processor. The µPD7220A is the second generation.
The µPD7220AD is the ceramic package. -2 stands for the fastest version. Probably they did some binning.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x03.jpg)

The die is 4,3mm x 4,3mm. The datasheet explains that a NMOS process was used.
In the 1981 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference the µPD7220 was introduced. The first generation had a die size of 7mm x 7mm. They did quite some shrinking to get to the µPD7220A.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x10.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x04.jpg)

Designed 1983...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x07.jpg)

HGDC? Some enigneers?


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x05.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x06.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x09.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x11.jpg)

Some test structures...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x18.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x21.jpg)

The computer system bus and the graphic memory bus IOs are equipped with their own ground rail that is connected to the package ground with two bondwires.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x20.jpg)

And three more ground wires for the rest of the logic.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/GraKa_S3/01x24.jpg)

The memory blocks are easy to spot. On the right side there is the FIFO buffer (16x9) and the parameter RAM (16x8). On the left side there is the instruction ROM (128x14).


Some more pictures here:

https://www.richis-lab.de/GraKa01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/GraKa01.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on May 12, 2021, 06:48:25 pm
Here we have the next part of the GDR telephone system (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone.htm)), the B384 which regulates the voltage of the subscriber's extension.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x01.jpg)

The datasheet shows the B384 as a switching regulator. The output voltage depends on the control signals RU, HR, BR.
There is a small mistake in the schematic. Can you find it? (answer at the end)
There is also an overvoltage protection circuit which activates an external thyristor with 5mA independent of the actual voltage.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x02.jpg)

The die is 4,3mm x 3,4mm. The integration density is quite low...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x04.jpg)

...that´s because the circuit has to withstand 100,25V (yes, that´s the value in the datasheet  ;D). There is quite some room between the transistors. Around the transistor structure itself there is a reddish line connected to the collector. I assume that´s some kind of potential steering to get a uniform electric field.  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x06.jpg)

Some parts are integrated in squares where the distances are smaller. In these squares the voltages are lower.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x07.jpg)

There are some spare parts on the die.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x11.jpg)

Now that is interesting: There are some metal lines on the die. On one side these lines are connected to the substrate. On the other side there is a bigger area which isn´t connected to anything. I don´t know what these metal lines do!  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x05.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x08.jpg)

The driver for the thyristor overvoltage protection consists of six transistors but only one of them is connected. Probably they connected the number of transistors they needed to get the right driver current. Nevertheless it´s strange there is only one of six connected.
There are two diodes (only one connected) which probably protect the base emitter junction of the driver transistor.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x09.jpg)

The driver transistors are darlington transistors.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/04x10.jpg)

Here we see the two power transistors and the two freewheeling diodes of the switching regulator.
Under the bondpad Ucc4 is the current limiter.
Aaaaaand the mistake in the schematic is the freewheeling diode at the bondpad L1. In the schematic it has the wrong polarity. It would create a short if the Ucc4-transistor switches.


https://www.richis-lab.de/phone04.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone04.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on May 16, 2021, 11:10:19 am
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/02x01.jpg)

Intersil ICM7045, a circuit to control a digital clock (also good for building a timer or stopwatch). The supply voltage should be between 2,5V- 4,5V. The power consumption is just 0,9mW. The ICM7045 can drive up to eight 7-Segment-LED-Displays.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/02x04.jpg)

The die is 3,3mm x 3,4mm.
In the centre of the die there is the logic counting the seconds, minutes, hours and controlling the display. At the edges of the die there are the big transistors that conduct the current flowing through the LED display.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/02x05.jpg)

ICM7045T is the internal naming of the design. As we have seen on other Intersil dies T is the revision that started at Z.
6C is the revision of the metal layer mask.
Under the metal frame we can see some other mask revisions: 1A, 2A, 3A, 5XA und 7A.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/02x08.jpg)

Coloring the power supply traces the location of highside and lowside drivers come into view.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/02x09.jpg)

Datasheet states that the ICM7045 was fabricated with a metal gate CMOS process. Here we see the metal rectangles acting as gates for the output transistors. Under the metal there are the intermeshing drain and source.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/03x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/03x02.jpg)

The epoxy of this older ICM7045 is a little short.  :-//


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/03x03.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/03x04.jpg)

The design is the same...


https://www.richis-lab.de/clock02.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/clock02.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on May 17, 2021, 12:42:50 pm
...
Ruhla Kaliber 15-02, a small simple digital watch.
...
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x09.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x10.jpg)

They potted the controller into the PCB.
After bonding the die they took a black lid on top of the board. The bondwires get bent but it seems that was no problem.
...


I found a picture showing how the board and the ic look like before "closing the hatch":


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x24.jpg)

It´s not exactly the same clock but it´s quite similar.


https://www.richis-lab.de/clock01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/clock01.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on May 17, 2021, 01:24:57 pm

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/clock/01x24.jpg)

It´s not exactly the same clock but it´s quite similar.


Sorry, I have to correct myself: That´s an older stage of development. Here the die is on the board, not in the board. The die got potted in the next step but it´s not placed in the board.
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on May 25, 2021, 02:23:53 pm
Let´s take a look into a digital audio amplifier!


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x01.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x03.jpg)

TDA8920, a well known 2x110W (+/-27V, 3Ω, 10% THD) amplifier built by Philips (today NXP).
It´s a nice SMT-package with a metal plate for top cooling.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x05.jpg)

On the heatsink we have the die with some gel potting.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x07.jpg)

The die is 5,1mm x 4,2mm. We can clearly see the two channels. It´s also no problem to spot the power transistors in the lower area.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x13.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x14.jpg)

Already NXP...


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x15.jpg)

The low power part is too high integrated to analyse every part of the circuit but we can see the differential inputs left and right on the upper edge of the die. The first three bondpads leading downwards left and right are VDDA, SGND and VSSA for each channel. In the middle there must be some control circuit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x17.jpg)

Each channel has two big capacitors and two huge resistors!  :o


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x16.jpg)

Well that are clearly logic lines like in a gatearray.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x12.jpg)

I assume the smaller circuits above the power transistors contain the driver and protection. It would be a logical location and the bootstrap supply ends here.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x18.jpg)

The line between the two power stages seems to contain a small power transistor. At the end of the line you have to connect the capacitor for the internal power supply. Probably that power transistor is a linear regulator.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x09.jpg)

Each Push-Pull-Stage uses six highside blocks (red/green) and six lowside blocks (green/blue). The output and the supply each use three bondwires.
At the lower edge there is the bootstrap circuit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x10.jpg)

The power transistor structures are too small to analyse them in detail.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/audioamp/05x11.jpg)

For the bootstrapping there is a diode connected to BOOT and leading to a exclusive VDD bondpad. The brown rectangle probably contains a low value resistor to damp the charge process of the bootstrap capacitor.
I assume the thing between BOOT and OUT is a zener to cut overvoltages at the bootstrap capacitor that can occur due to parasitic inductance at the output.


https://www.richis-lab.de/audioamp05.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/audioamp05.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on June 02, 2021, 06:37:43 pm
Here we have the next part of the GDR telephone system (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone.htm)), the B385, a test circuit:


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/05x01.jpg)

Just some switches for the telephone wires. But these are interesting switches. They integrated thyristor switches which can withstand 91V, conduct 70mA and guarantee a on resistance of 17 \$\Omega\$.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/05x02.jpg)

The die is 3,1mm x 4,1mm.
You can clearly see the six switches and their control circuits.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/05x04.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/phone/05x05.jpg)

To allow bidirectional current flow there are two thyristor switches connected antiparallel.
Interesting structures...


https://www.richis-lab.de/phone05.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/phone05.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on June 04, 2021, 11:41:25 am
I started a topic collecting pictures of diodes:

https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/diodes-die-pictures/msg3582109/#msg3582109 (https://www.eevblog.com/forum/projects/diodes-die-pictures/msg3582109/#msg3582109)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on June 08, 2021, 03:41:37 am
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x01.jpg)

MAX232A, a RS-232 line driver/receiver with an integrated charge pump.
The MAX232A is the newer revision of the MAX232 and needs less capacitance.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x02.jpg)

The die is 2,9mm x 1,8mm.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x04.jpg)

Built 1986.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x05.jpg)

Identifying the functional blocks is no bigger problem (sorry, german  ;)).
On the right side you have the two inputs and the two outputs.
On the left side there are the charge pumps.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x06.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x07.jpg)

At the input there is a big resistor (Ro) building a voltage divider with the resistor Ru. You can spot the lowside, the highside, the driver and the feedback circuit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x09.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x10.jpg)

The input resistors have to be isolated better because the input voltage can go up/down to +/-25V.
The metal layer makes it possible to adjust the resistance with two fuses. With two more fuses they were able to adjust the lower resistor of the voltage divider.
The numbers seem to be mask revisions.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x13.jpg)

Here we have the lower resistor of the voltage divider, the input and the feedback resistor. The feedback resistor can be adjusted by changing the metal layer.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x12.jpg)

Between the input signal and the feedback there are two clamping diodes.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x14.jpg)

Below the RS-232-input there is the RS-232-output circuit.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x15.jpg)

Here we have the first charge pump. Four transistors switch the capacitor C1 to the +5V-supply to charge it to +5V. Then the capacitor is connected "on top of the +5V supply" and you get +10V at "V+".


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/transceiver/01x16.jpg)

In the second charge pump four transistors charge the capacitor C2 to +10V and switch it reversed to GND which gives us -10V at "V-".  :-+


https://www.richis-lab.de/transceiver01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/transceiver01.htm)

 :-+
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: Noopy on June 14, 2021, 03:35:11 am
(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x02.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x01.jpg)

BQ27220, a single li cell fuel gauge in a small flip-chip package (DSBGA-9 - 1,62mm × 1,58mm).


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x04.jpg)

Flip-chip, the die gets the solder balls on top of it and is flipped to solder it on the board.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x05.jpg)

It looks like there is a thin coating on top of the BQ27220. Flip-chip parts often have problems with light fluctuations. Some time ago there was a flip-chip voltage regulator on a Raspberry Pi 2 that resets the processor whenever you take a picture of the board using a flashlight.  :o Perhaps this coating damps some of the light reaching the chip.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x06.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x07.jpg)

Due to the used optics it looks like the solder balls get bigger in the background. That´s not true.  ;D


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x08.jpg)

(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x09.jpg)

You don´t see much of the circuit but the area in the upper left corner looks like logic. The area in the lower left corner looks like memory. The BQ27220 has quite some memory.


(https://www.richis-lab.de/images/li/01x10.jpg)


https://www.richis-lab.de/li01.htm (https://www.richis-lab.de/li01.htm)

 :-/O
Title: Re: Different die pictures
Post by: RoGeorge on June 14, 2021, 02:20:00 pm
Due to the used optics it looks like the solder balls get bigger in the background. That´s not true.  ;D

They all have about the same number of pixels in diameter, yet the brain assumes the usual 3D to 2D geometric projection, therefore brain concludes the further away ones should be bigger.   ::)

After I explained to brain what happened, brain still concludes the back ones are bigger.   :palm: